The Holocaust wasn’t only the mass murder of Jews, and others, it was preceded by other crimes. Although many people would not have perceived them as crimes because they were legalised by Nazi laws.
The rapacity of the Nazis was expressed in a large number of measures, orders and ordinances (VO) with the force of law. A number of ordinances were explicitly intended for Jews and pertained to all forms of property.
The most important regulations for Jews were the so-called Liro Regulations of 1941 and 1942. The first Liro Regulation (VO 148/41) was issued on 8 August 1941. The ordinance stipulated, among other things, that Jews had to transfer their cash assets and securities to an account to be opened at the Liro bank in the Sarphatistraat in Amsterdam. On paper, the Liro bank was a branch of the renowned bank Lippmann, Rosenthal and Co. on the Nieuwe Spiegelstraat…
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