Emmi G.

Emmi G

This is a picture of Emmi G/ A victim of the T4  euthanasia program. Killed because she was ‘different’.

What makes her story even sadder is the fact that we don’t even know her full name. All we know is that she was 16 when she was killed with an overdose of tranquilizers on December 7, 1942 in Meseritz-Obrawalde euthanasia center.

Even the date is heartbreaking  it was 1 day after the celebrations of der Heilige Nikolaus, or Saint Nicholas. The traditional German Christmas celebration.Although the war was raging the St Nicolasr feast was still celebrated throughout the war.

Emmi G had been diagnosed as schizophrenic,she worked as a housemaid. If she actually was  schizophrenic is doubtful. She was a teenager dealing with teenage anxiety during the most horrible time in history. I have no evidence of this but my presumption is that she had just become an ‘inconvenience’ and was therefore killed.

None of the cases in the T4 program were voluntary.

Even if she had been  schizophrenic that does not warrant a death penalty. What ot does require is psychiatric help, but that is something the Nazis did not subscribe to. That is why the designed the T4 program. The irony is the real mental cases were the Nazi leaders themselves.

The story of Emmi G does come with a warning though. We may think that this could not possibly happen here however some European countries do allow Euthanasia on teenagers and even younger children. even children with mental problems

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Source USHMM

 

Memorandum authorizing involuntary euthanasia

t4

Five short lines determined the lives or rather the end of lives of up to 300,000 innocent people.

“Reichsleiter  Bouhler and Dr. med.  Brandt are hereby instructed and authorized to broaden the powers of designated physicians to the extent that persons who are suffering from diseases which may be deemed incurable according to standards of human judgment based on a careful examination of their condition shall be guaranteed a mercy death.
— Adolf Hitler, Memorandum Authorizing Involuntary Euthanasia, Berlin, 1 September 1939.”

The memorandum refers to these deaths as mercy deaths but in fact they were brutal murders. The document was the authorisation for the so called “Aktion T4” The involuntary euthanasia of approximately 300,000 people with mental and physical disabilities as determined by the Nazi Nuremberg Laws. Basically no life was sacred for the Nazis If it did not fit their idea of a perfect Aryan your life was not certain.

There  is of course an abbreviation for involuntary euthanasia which is murder.

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Tiergartenstraße 4

T4

Tiergartenstraße 4, may look like an ordinary German address. But is an address which is synonymous to unspeakable evil.

It was the address of a villa in  the Tiergarten or Zoo district in central Berlin.

T4 Villa

But more then that it was the headquarters of the Nazi “euthanasia” program ,the mass murder of disabled people and others, code named Aktion T4.

An estimated 300,000 people with disabilities were killed as a result of the T4 Aktion program. The definition of disability was very loosely used by the Nazis. Even a political dissident could be marked as disabled.

What often is overlooked is that the authorizing of  the euthanasia program was signed by Adolf Hitler and dated Sept. 1, 1939. The very same day as the Nazi regime invaded Poland.

Officially the program  ended in  August 1941 amid a welter of protests from many quarters of German society. But in reality the killing continued to the end of the war.

 

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Sources

Britannica

gedenkort-t4.eu

All that is interesting.

Werner Catel- deciding who lives.

Werner Catel

One of the most disturbing aspects  of the Holocaust I find is the fact that so many who were instrumental in so many evil deeds, were allowed to continue after the war.

In February or March 1939 a farmer called Richard Kretschmar requested Catel’s permission to euthanize one of his children, the child we now know to have been  Gerhard Kretschmar, often referred to as Child K, who had been born blind and deformed.

Werner Catel deferred the matter and advised the father to write directly to Hitler for permission. Hitler subsequently sent Dr. Karl Brandt to confer with Catel and decide on a course of action. On July 25, 1939 the child was killed. It would be the first child to be killed under Aktion T4 or the T-4 program, technically the poor boy would become the pilot case.

T-4

A year later, Werner Catel set up »children’s wards in Leipzig-Dösen and in the University Children’s Hospital in Leipzig. He was an expert on the Reich Committee for the Scientific Registering of Serious Hereditary and Congenital Illnesses, even killing children with mental or physical disabilities himself.

The T4 program was influenced by a popular book, ” die freigabe der vernichtung lebensunwerten lebens(Allowing the destruction of life unworthy of living)”, written in 1922 by Alfred Hoche and Karl Binding.

Book

Catel argued for the reintroduction of euthanasia. As had Binding and Hoche, Catel identified three possible types of euthanasia.

Reine Euthanasie:
“Real” euthanasia was seen as the killing of a person who was suffering from so much pain, that an ever-increasing amount of pain reducing drugs had to be administered. This consequently lead to the person’s death.

Euthanasie im engeren Sinne:
The killing of a patient whose illness “according to medical experience” is so bad “that there is no hope of recovery”, but whose death is also not to be expected in the near future. (See terminal sedation)

Euthanasie im weiteren Sinne:
The “extermination of the life of an “idiot child” or an adult in a similar condition. Catel defined “idiot children” as being “such monsters … which are nothing but a massa carnis”.

Basically Werner Catel was one of the people who felt they had the right to decided who would live or die.

After the war Catel fled from Soviet controlled Leipzig in 1946. To West Germany.The West German authorities ‘de-Nazified’ him in 1949 and classed him as »Persons Exonerated. Afterwards, he was shortlisted for several professorships. In 1954, he was appointed Professor of Paediatrics in Kiel, despite the facts his function on the Reich Committee was known. Due to public pressure and the debate about his role in National Socialism, Catel took early retirement in 1960. Catel continued to propagate in public the idea of the euthanasia of children with mental and physical disabilities.

He died April 30, 1981, aged 88. Where many of his victims did even reach the age  88 months.

 

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Sources

T4-Denkmal

Der Spiegel

 

Reporting of children who showed signs of severe mental or physical disability.

child

They say a picture paints a thousand words.But ever since I have been doing blogs about the holocaust I have seen many pictures that have left me speechless, and none more so then the suffering of children.

On August 18 1939, Wilhelm Frick ordered all physicians, nurses and midwives to report children under the age of three who showed signs of severe mental or physical disability. This was the first phase in the Nazi Germany’s child euthanasia program. The so called T4 program.

The key document was a circular from the Reich Minister of the Interior of 18 August 1939, Ref: IVb 3088/39 – 1079 Mi, which was marked “Strictly Confidential” and specified the groups to be included and how they were to be assembled. After that, doctors and midwives together with maternity hospitals, obstetric departments and children’s hospitals, except where a senior doctor was not present or did not get the instruction, were required to report in writing to the appropriate health authorities:

if the newborn child is suspected of being afflicted with the following congenital disorders:

1) Idiocy and mongolism (especially cases combined with blindness and deafness),
2) Microcephaly
3) Hydrocephalus, to a severe or advanced degree
4) Malformations of all kinds, particularly the absence of limbs, severe midline defects of the head and spine, etc.
5) Paralysis, including cerebral palsy

A template of a reporting form was enclosed with the circular, which had to be sent by public health authorities as required to their higher administrative authority.  Uniquely, a reward of 2 RM for each report was given to the midwives and nurses affected “for professional services rendered”.

Nurses Midwives

At the start only children under the age of 3 were to be reported. The prescribed registration form gave the illusion that registration was only being sought with the aim of providing special medical care, in fact they were designed to determine if a child would be killed or not, the technical term was if they were eligible for euthanasia, as if that was a good thing.

Three experts were appointed from the National Committee who had been heavily involved in the preparatory committee, Werner Catel, Hans Heinze and Ernst Wentzler. Hefelmann  who remarked  later,that Professor Heinze and Dr. Wentzler  supported euthanasia with great enthusiasm and Professor Catel with conviction, and so they agreed without any pressure to so act as expert assessors.

But it wasn’t only Physicians who killed children,some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders.

Below is a picture of  Richard Jenne-  the last known child murdered in the T4 program.

Richard

 

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Hans Asperger-Highly regarded physician who ruthlessly send children to death.

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First do no harm is a key element of the Hippocratic oath, the oath physicians take. However during WWII and before it many physicians working for or with the Nazi regime were happy to forget that oath.

And not all of them were actually members of the Nazi party, as was Dr Hans Asperger an Austrian Doctor.He is best known for his early studies on mental disorders, especially in children,and especially children with Autism.

Asperger-Vienna-clinic

He was a pioneer in autism research whose name is used to describe high-functioning people with the disorder, referred to as Asperger syndrome, had a previously unknown dark past that included sending children with disabilities to a “euthanasia” program run by the Nazi regime, according to new investigations into his long-lost files.

In a questionnaire from October 1940, Hans Asperger registered several memberships in organizations affiliated with the Nazi Party.However, he did not join the Nazi party itself.

survey

Herwig Czech, from Vienna’s Medical University, has reported in an academic paper published in the open access journal Molecular Autism, following eight years of research into the paediatrician Hans Asperger.

It has been revealed that Asperger  was not the  courageous defender of his patients against “euthanasia” by the Nazis, as many had thought. In fact it was far from it, he benefited from his cooperation with the regime and “publicly legitimized race hygiene policies, including forced sterilizations,” according to a study published online  on April 19 2018 in the journal Molecular Autism.

Asperger was a scientist who allied himself so closely with the Nazi ideology that he regularly referred children to the Am Spiegelgrund clinic, which was set up as a collecting point for children who failed to conform to the regime’s criteria of “worthy to live”.Nearly 800 children died at the clinic between 1940 and 1945, many of whom were murdered under the notorious child “euthanasia” scheme.am-spiegelgrund-children-in-cribs

Hundreds were either drugged or gassed to death from 1940 to 1945.Even the children authorised for “treatment” were not killed immediately as a rule, but were used, sometimes for months, in scientific research.

Among Czech’s findings is a photo of the distraught face of Herta Schreiber, who suffered from encephalitis and died of pneumonia three months after her admittance to Spiegelgrund, on Asperger’s orders, a day after her third birthday.She had suffered from encephalitis.Encephalitis is a swelling of the brain and can be caused by infection or an allergic reaction.Assessed in late June 1941, the young girl suffered from ‘severe personality disorder’, ‘idiocy’ and ‘seizures’.

Asperger added that she ‘must be an unbearable burden to her mother’ and then recommended permanent placement at Spiegelgrund.

Herta was admitted to Spiegelgrund on 1 July 1941.

Hans Asperger, National Socialism, and “race hygiene” in Nazi-era Vienna

On 8 August, she was reported to the ‘Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditary and Congenital Illnesses’, the secret organisation behind child ‘euthanasia.’With zero chance of recovery and no shortened life expectancy, she was recommended for the program and the euthanasia ‘experts’ viewed this as an unacceptable combination.On 2 September, a day after her third birthday, Herta died of ‘pneumonia’, the most common cause of death at Spiegelgrund. A specimen of her brain was found in a preparation jar in the basement of the clinic in the 1990s and buried in 2002.

There was no evidence that Asperger deliberately targeted for euthanasia the patients with distinct psychological characteristics he had called “autistic psychopaths”, under the diagnosis for which he became famous, said Czech. But his diagnoses proved burdensome for many of his patients, even years after the collapse of the Nazi regime. Asperger continued working as a doctor for more than three decades.

The term Asperger syndrome first came up in London in 1981, by Dr Lorna Wing, , She and  other scientists,clinicians, and  the broader autism community, were unaware of Hans Asperger’s close alliance with, and support of, the Nazi programme of compulsory sterilisation and euthanasia.

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This of course does not reflect in any way,shape or form on those who are diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, but I do believe we should start looking more critical at the work of ‘scientists’ of the Nazi era.

(Hans Asperger (front row, right) with his medical colleagues in Vienna in 1933. Photograph: Medical University of Vienna/Josephinum)2013

 

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Sources

Livescience

The Guardian

Biomedcentral

 

 

 

Child K-The First T 4 victim

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The T4 program AKA Aktion T4 was a postwar name for mass murder through involuntary euthanasia in Nazi Germany.The name T4 is an abbreviation of Tiergartenstraße 4, a street address of the Chancellery department set up in the spring of 1940, in the Berlin borough of Tiergarten, which recruited and paid personnel associated with T4. Certain German physicians were authorized to select patients “deemed incurably sick, after most critical medical examination” and then administer to them a “mercy death” (Gnadentod). In October 1939 Adolf Hitler signed a “euthanasia decree” backdated to 1 September 1939 that authorized his personal physician Karl Brandt and Reichsleiter Philipp Bouhler to implement the program.

Aktion_brand

The immediate occasion for the beginning of the organized euthanasia of children is considered in the literature to be the so-called case of “Child K”.

Beginning in October 1939, public health authorities began to encourage parents of children with disabilities to admit their young children to one of a number of specially designated pediatric clinics throughout Germany and Austria. In reality, the clinics were children’s killing wards. There, specially recruited medical staff murdered their young charges by lethal overdoses of medication or by starvation.

In this particular case, the parents submitted a request that their severely disabled child be granted a “mercy killing”, the application being received at an unverifiable time before the middle of 1939 at the Office of the Führer (KDF), also known as Hitler’s Chancellery. This office was an agency of the Nazi Party and a private chancellery placed under the direct authority of Hitler which employed about 195 staff in 1939. Main Office IIb under Hans Hefelmann and his deputy, Richard von Hegener, was responsible for “clemency”. The head of Main Office II and thus Hefelmann’s superior was the Oberdienstleiter, Viktor Brack, one of the leading organizers of Nazi euthanasia.

Viktor_Brack_Nürnberg_2

The reports of this case are mainly based on statements of defendants in post-war trials, which time and again pointed to the case of a “Child K”. According to French journalist, Philippe Aziz, in an interview, this child was supposed to have been traced in 1973 to a “Kressler” family in Pomßen. However, Benzenhöfer came to the conclusion, after several days of investigation, that “Child K” was in fact Gerhard Herbert Kretschmar, born on the 20 February 1939 in Pomßen and who died on 25 July 1939.In 2007, however, Benzenhöfer learned from the sister of the deceased child, that he was not disabled and had died a natural death. As a result, Benzenhöfer had to revise his assertion.

The identity of the child is thus still unclear. New research opens the possibility that it could have been a girl who died as early as March 1938 at the Leipzig-Reudnitz Children’s Hospital.This children’s hospital was directly connected to the University Children’s Hospital of Leipzig and its director, Werner Catel. The previously accepted statements by members of Hitler’s Chancellery (KdF) in the scientific literature postwar are thus open to question. A precise dating of the events surrounding the case of “Child K” is (as at 2008) not possible on the basis of the statements. It is conceivable that the period beginning in 1938 (for carrying out the said killing) until early/mid-1939 (for the start of concrete planning phase) is realistic. If the case of “Child K” actually took place in March 1938, for which there is some evidence, then the case can at best be described as an impetus for the euthanasia of children in Germany and not as its specific cause or trigger.

According to the testimony of the participants, the request on 23 May 1939 led to a meeting of the parents of the child with the director of the University Children’s Hospital, Leipzig, Werner Catel, Professorenkatalog der Universitaet Leipzigabout the chances of survival of her malformed child.According to Catel’s own statement, he held that the release of the child by an early death was the best solution for everyone involved. But because actively assisting death was still punishable under the Third Reich, Catel advised the parents to submit an appropriate request to Hitler via his private chancellery. About this request, in a statement before the investigating judge on 14 November 1960, Hefelmann said the following:

“I worked on this request, as it was in my department. Since Hitler’s decision was requested, I forwarded it without comment to the Head of Main Office I in the KdF, Albert Bormann. As a simple act of mercy was being requested, I did not deem the involvement of the Reich Interior Minister and the Minister of Justice necessary. Because, as far as I know, Hitler had not made a decision with regards to such requests, it also seemed impractical to me, to involve other authorities.”[11]

To the recollections of his boss, Hefelmann’s deputy, Richard von Hegener, added:

“As early as about half a year before the outbreak of the war, there were more and more requests from incurably sick or very seriously injured people who asked for relief from their suffering, which was unbearable to them. These requests were especially tragic, because under existing laws a doctor was not allowed to take such wishes into account. Because the department, as we were reminded again and again, was under Hitler’s orders to deal on precisely with such cases that could not be resolved legally, Dr. Hefelmann and I felt committed, after a while to take a number of such requests to Hitler’s personal physician, the then senior doctor, Dr. Brandt, for him to submit and obtain a decision from Hitler on what should be done with such requests. Soon afterwards, Dr. Brandt told us that Hitler had decided, following this presentation, to grant such requests if it was proven by the doctor attending the patient as well as the newly formed health committee, that the suffering was incurable.”[12]

During the Nuremberg Doctors’ Trial, Brandt said the following about the case of “Child K”:

800px-Karl-Brandt

“I personally know of a petition that was sent to the Führer in 1939 via his adjutant’s office [Adjutantur]. The case was about the father of a malformed child who applied to the Führer asking that the life of this child or this creature would be taken. At the time, Hitler ordered me to address this matter and to go to Leipzig immediately – it had happened in Leipzig – in order to confirm on the spot what had been asserted. I found that there was a child who had been born blind, appeared imbecilic and who was also missing a leg and part of the arm. […] He [Hitler] had given me the task, to discuss with the doctors in whose care the child was, to determine whether the disclosure of the father was correct. In the event that he was right, I was to tell the doctors, in his [Hitler’s] name, that they could carry out euthanasia. In doing so, it was important that it should be done in such a way that the parents could not feel at any later stage that they themselves were burdened by the euthanasia [of their child]. In other words, that these parents should not have the impression that they themselves were responsible for the death of the child. It was further beholden on me to say that if these doctors themselves were involved in any legal proceedings as a result of these measures, carried out on behalf of Hitler, these proceedings would be quashed. Martin Bormann was then tasked, to notify this accordingly to the then Minister of Justice, Gürtner, in respect of this case in Leipzig. […] The doctors were of the opinion that preserving the life of such a child was not actually justified. It was pointed out that it is quite normal that in maternity hospitals under certain circumstances for euthanasia to be administered by the doctors themselves in such a case, without calling it such, any more precise term is not used

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Helene Melanie Lebel- To “ill” to be allowed to live.

Helene Lebe;

On this day in 1939 Adolf Hitler signed an order to begin the systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and disabled people, the so called T4 program.

Aktion_brand

https://dirkdeklein.net/2016/04/08/forgotten-history-the-t-4-holocaust-victimsthe-killing-of-the-disabled/

The T4 program, which was was basically the gassing of people who were deemed mentally ill, was the first wave of mass extermination by the Nazi regime.

Helena Melanie Lebel was one of the many thousands of victims.

BORN: SEPTEMBER 15, 1911
VIENNA, AUSTRIA

The elder of two daughters born to a Jewish father and a Catholic mother, Helene was raised as a Catholic in Vienna. Her father died in action during World War I when Helene was just 5 years old, and her mother remarried when Helene was 15. Known affectionately as Helly, Helene loved to swim and go to the opera. After finishing her secondary education she entered law school.

1933-39: At 19 Helene first showed signs of mental illness. Her condition worsened during 1934, and by 1935 she had to give up her law studies and her job as a legal secretary. After losing her trusted fox terrier, Lydi, she suffered a major breakdown. She was diagnosed as schizophrenic, and was placed in Vienna’s Steinhof Psychiatric Hospital. Two years later, in March 1938, the Germans annexed Austria to Germany.

Anschluss Österreich, Wien

1940: Helene was confined in Steinhof and was not allowed home even though her condition had improved. Her parents were led to believe that she would soon be released. Instead, Helene’s mother was informed in August that Helene had been transferred to a hospital in Niedernhart, just across the border in Bavaria. In fact, Helene was transferred to a converted prison in Brandenburg, Germany, where she was undressed, subjected to a physical examination, and then led into a shower room.

Helene was one of 9,772 persons gassed that year in the Brandenburg “Euthanasia” center. She was officially listed as dying in her room of “acute schizophrenic excitement.”

Brandenburg, Hauptgebäude des Zuchthauses

Hartheim Euthanasia Centre

hartheim1

The first mass murder by means of gassing by the Nazi regime did not happen in the concentration camps The first gassings in Germany took place in January 1940 at the Brandenburg Euthanasia Centre.

the-prison-buildings-uses-for-euthanasia-at-brandenberg

However it was the Hartheim Euthanasia centre which was the main centre to carry out the ‘T4 Program’ the mass murder of the physically and mentally disabled. It didn’t take much to be branded ‘Disabled’ Initially it was ‘sold’ under the motto of mercy killings for the ‘incurably ill’ , several rationales for the program had been offered, including eugenics, compassion, reducing suffering, racial hygiene, cost effectiveness and pressure on the welfare budget.

euthanasiepropaganda

https://dirkdeklein.net/2016/04/08/forgotten-history-the-t-4-holocaust-victimsthe-killing-of-the-disabled/

Hartheim castle, situated in the village of Alkoven near Linz in Austria, and close to the Mauthausen concentration camp, originally dated from the ninth century

In the spring of 1940, remodelling works to adapt the castle to become a euthanasia centre were finished within a matter of weeks; the residents were subsequently distributed amongst other care facilities in the district of Oberdonau. They were to become the first victims of the Hartheim Euthanasia Centre.

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The first transport reached Hartheim on 20 May 1940. Between 1940 and 1944, round 30,000 people with physical and mental disabilities as well as with mental illnesses were murdered. Some of them were patients from mental institutions and residents of homes for the disabled and care facilities, whereas others were prisoners from the concentration camps in Mauthausen, Gusen and Dachau, as well as forced labourers.

Hartheim Euthanasia Centre was under the medical direction of Dr Rudolf Lonauer, a psychiatrist from Linz. Pictured below with his family.

lonauer-with-family

 

He was responsible for the deaths of victims, determining the causes of death, keeping patient records and representing the Landesanstalt Hartheim (Hartheim State Institution) to third parties. Rudolf Lonauer was also the medical director of the District Sanatorium and Nursing Home Niedernhart in Linz, which served as a holding station for victims on their way to Hartheim. Rudolf Lonauer committed suicide in May 1945.

The deputy medical director was Dr Georg Renno, who managed to disappear after 1945, but was re-captured in 1961.

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Charges were filed in 1967, but the trial was discontinued in 1970 due to reports of the defendant being in poor health. Georg Renno died a free man in 1997.

The administrative technical director of Hartheim Euthanasia Centre was Christian Wirth, a policeman from Württemberg, who had already worked at the Nazi euthanasia centres in Grafeneck and Hadamar. In his function as the ‘office manager’, he was the head of the Special Register Office, which had been established in Hartheim.

christian_wirth_in_uniform

Moreover, he was responsible for keeping records of and sending urns, making local police reports and corresponding with the ‘transferring institutions’.

A total of approximately 60 to 70 people were employed at Hartheim Euthanasia Centre. In addition to the nurses, who had the most contact with the victims and normally accompanied them on the busses, employees who were responsible for issuing and sending condolence letters and death certificates and sending urns as part of their administrative duties, represented the majority of the staff. Most of them also lived at the castle. Schoberstein Manor in Weißenbach on Lake Atter was available as an excursion destination for the staff at Hartheim. In addition, evening parties and group outings were organised as compensation for the staff of the castle – often together with their colleagues from the concentration camp in Mauthausen.

The death certificates were issued at Hartheim’s Special Register Office, which was located at the castle. False records were purposefully kept regarding the reason, date and place of death in order to mislead relatives and hamper investigations.

hartheimletter2

Pulmonary tuberculosis was a popular reason of death, since it was a communicable disease that made it necessary to burn the corpse immediately. The system of exchanging files amongst the euthanasia centres contributed to the success of this cover-up action.

Not everyone who knew of the killings of those considered ‘unworthy of life’ remained silent. One such example is Franz Sitter, who was transferred from Ybbs an der Donau to work as a nurse in Hartheim in October 1940. He demanded to be immediately relieved of his professional duties, which was also the case. Afterwards, Sitter was sent back to Ybbs. On 6 February 1941, Franz Sitter was called to the front. He survived the war and returned to his profession as a nurse.

franzsitter

In Alkoven itself, a resistance group centred round brothers Karl and Ignaz Schuhmann and Leopold Hilgarth came together and gave a rallying cry for resistance against the Nazi regime by means of graffiti and flyers. The group was betrayed, and Leopold Hilgarth and Ignaz Schuhmann were executed in Vienna on 9 January 1945.

Picture below is of Leopold Hilgarth(sitting down)

hilgarth2

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Nazi Laws which were still enforced or re-introduced after WWII.

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Although some many sacrifices were made to fight Fascism and the Nazi regime it is unfathomable that some of it’s laws were still maintained after the war or appear to be making a come back nowadays, albeit under a different name and context but the fundamentals are basically the same.

When the Nazi concentration camps were liberated by the Allies, it was a time of great jubilation for the tens of thousands of people incarcerated in them. But an often forgotten fact of this time is that some prisoners who happened to be wearing the pink triangle

Pink_Triangle_Patch_PrideID

(the Nazis’ way of marking and identifying homosexuals) were forced to serve out the rest of their sentence.This was due to a part of German law simply known as “Paragraph 175” which criminalized homosexuality. The law wasn’t repealed until 1969

 

 

 

 

Although Article 175 was established on 15 May 1871 , In 1935 the Nazis strengthened Paragraph 175 by redefining the crime as a felony and thus increasing the maximum penalty from six months’ to five years’ imprisonment. Further, by removing the adjective widernatürlich (“against nature”) they removed the longtime tradition that the law applied only to penetrative intercourse. A criminal offense would now exist if “objectively the general sense of shame was offended” and subjectively “the debauched intention was present to excite sexual desire in one of the two men, or a third.” [The quotations are from German case law, RGSt 73, 78, 80 f.] Mutual physical contact was no longer necessary.

Beyond that – much as had already been planned in 1925 – a new Paragraph 175a was created, punishing “qualified cases” as schwere Unzucht (“severe lewdness”) with no less than one year and no more than ten years in the penitentiary. These included:

  • sexual relations with a subordinate or employee in a work situation,
  • homosexual acts with men under the age of 21,
  • male prostitution.

“Unnatural fornication with a beast” was moved to Paragraph 175b.

According to the official rationale, Paragraph 175 was amended in the interest of the moral health of the Volk – the German people – because “according to experience” homosexuality “inclines toward plague-like propagation” and exerts “a ruinous influence” on the “circles concerned

This aggravation of the severity of Paragraph 175 in 1935 increased the number of convictions tenfold, to 8,000 annually. Only about half of the prosecutions resulted from police work; about 40 percent resulted from private accusations (Strafanzeige) by non-participating observers, and about 10 percent were denouncements by employers and institutions.

Gestapo_anti-gay_telex

In contradistinction to normal police, the Gestapo were authorized to take gay men into preventive detention (Schutzhaft) of arbitrary duration without an accusation (or even after an acquittal). This was often the fate of so-called “repeat offenders”: at the end of their sentences, they were not freed but sent for additional “reeducation” (Umerziehung) in a concentration camp. Only about 40 percent of these pink triangle prisoners – whose numbers amounted to an estimated 10,000 – survived the camps. Some of them, after their release by the Allied Forces, were placed back in prison, because they had not yet finished court-mandated terms of imprisonment for homosexual acts.

Nazi eugenics

 

Nazi propaganda poster from 1936, supporting Nazi Germany’s 1933 Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring (their compulsory sterilization)

Wir_stehen_nicht_allein

Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring (Ger. Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses) or “Sterilisation Law” was a statute in Nazi Germany enacted on July 14, 1933, (and made active in January 1934)which allowed the compulsory sterilisation of any citizen who in the opinion of a “Genetic Health Court” suffered from a list of alleged genetic disorders – many of which were not, in fact, genetic. The elaborate interpretive commentary on the law was written by three dominant figures in the racial hygiene movement: Ernst Rüdin,Arthur Gütt and the lawyer Falk Ruttke. The law itself was based on a ‘model’ American law developed by Harry H. Laughlin.

The basic provisions of the 1933 law stated that:

(1) Any person suffering from a hereditary disease may be rendered incapable of procreation by means of a surgical operation (sterilization), if the experience of medical science shows that it is highly probable that his descendants would suffer from some serious physical or mental hereditary defect.
(2) For the purposes of this law, any person will be considered as hereditarily diseased who is suffering from any one of the following diseases: –
(1) Congenital Mental Deficiency,
(2) Schizophrenia,
(3) Manic-Depressive Insanity,
(4) Hereditary Epilepsy,
(5) Hereditary Chorea (Huntington’s),
(6) Hereditary Blindness,
(7) Hereditary Deafness,
(8) Any severe hereditary deformity.
(3) Any person suffering from severe alcoholism may be also rendered incapable of procreatio.
The law applied to anyone in the general population, making its scope significantly larger than the compulsory sterilisation laws in the United States, which generally were only applicable on people in psychiatric hospitals or prisons.

The 1933 law created a large number of “Genetic Health Courts”, consisting of a judge, a medical officer, and medical practitioner, which “shall decide at its own discretion after considering the results of the whole proceedings and the evidence tendered”. If the court decided that the person in question was to be sterilised, the decision could be appealed to “Higher Genetic Health Court”. If the appeal failed, the sterilization was to be carried out, with the law specifying that “the use of force is permissible”. The law also required that people seeking voluntary sterilizations also go through the courts.

There were three amendments by 1935, most making minor adjustments to how the statute operated or clarifying bureaucratic aspects (such as who paid for the operations). The most significant changes allowed the Higher Court to renounce a patient’s right to appeal, and to fine physicians who did not report patients who they knew would qualify for sterilisation under the law. The law also enforced sterilization on the so-called “Rhineland bastards.”(was a derogatory term used in Nazi Germany to describe multiracial children with Caucasian,German mothers who had been fathered by Africans serving with French colonial troops during the Occupation of the Rhineland after World War I. According to Nazi racial theory, these children were considered inferior to Aryan children and consigned to compulsory sterilization.)

At the time of its enaction, the German government pointed to the success of sterilisation laws elsewhere, especially the work in California documented by the American eugenicists E. S. Gosneyand Paul Popenoe, as evidence of the humaneness and efficacy of such laws. Eugenicists abroad admired the German law for its legal and ideological clarity. Popenoe himself wrote that “the German law is well drawn and, in form, may be considered better than the sterilization laws of most American states”, and trusted in the German government’s “conservative, sympathetic, and intelligent administration” of the law, praising the “scientific leadership” of the Nazis.The German mathematician Otfrid Mittmann defended the law against “unfavorable judgements”.

Reichsgesetzblatt_25_Juli_1933

In the first year of the law’s operation, 1934, 84,600 cases were brought to Genetic Health Courts, with 62,400 forced sterilisations. Nearly 4,000 people appealed against the decisions of sterilisation authorities; 3,559 of the appeals failed.[In 1935, it was 88,100 trials and 71,700 sterilizations.By the end of the Nazi regime, over 200 “Genetic Health Courts” were created, and under their rulings over 400,000 people were sterilized against their will.

Along with the law, Adolf Hitler personally decriminalised abortion in case of fetuses having racial or hereditary defects for doctors, while the abortion of healthy “pure” German, “Aryan” unborn remained strictly forbidden.

The phrase “life unworthy of life” (in German: “Lebensunwertes Leben”) was a Nazi designation for the segments of the populace which, according to the Nazi regime of the time, had no right to live. Those individuals were targeted to be euthanized. The term included people with serious medical problems and those considered grossly inferior according to the racial policy of Nazi Germany. This concept formed an important component of the ideology of Nazism and eventually helped lead to the Holocaust.

The euthanasia programme was officially adopted in 1939 and came through the personal decision of Adolf Hitler. It grew in extent and scope fromAction T4 ending officially in 1941 when public protests stopped the programme, through the Action 14f13 against concentration camp inmates.

https://dirkdeklein.net/2016/04/08/forgotten-history-the-t-4-holocaust-victimsthe-killing-of-the-disabled/

https://dirkdeklein.net/2016/05/19/action-14f13-the-killing-of-the-sick/

The euthanasia of people with disabilities continued more less discreetly until the end of World War II. The methods used initially at German hospitals such as lethal injections and bottled gas poisoning.

This poster (from around 1938) reads: “60,000 Reichsmark is what this person suffering from a hereditary defect costs the People’s community during his lifetime. Fellow citizen, that is your money too. Read ‘[A] New People’, the monthly magazine of the Bureau for Race Politics of the NSDAP.

EuthanasiePropaganda

Several ‘developed’ countries do currently have abortion and euthanasia programs not  very dissimilar to the Nazi eugenics laws.

For example in 2014 in Denmark 98 percent of pregnant women who were revealed to be carrying an unborn child with Down Syndrome chose to have an abortion.

You could argue this is done voluntarily by the women but it is all how you relay the information to the mothers that ultimately determines their ‘free will’. If you put the emphasis on the negatives then subliminally you will influence a decision.

Similar programs although withe lower percentages are in place in the Nerherlands, France and other European countries. Belgium even offers euthanasia to young children who have mental problems.

I don’t want to judge but some of the similarities are scary and seem to go under the radar.

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