The gradual dehumanizing by the Nazi regime.

A Jewish woman who is concealing her face sits on a park bench marked Only for Jews, Austria, 1938

The Holocaust was a gradual process. The Nazis didn’t start mass extermination when they got into power. But gradually prepared the population by dehumanizing the Jewish people. Segregation, as shown in the photo above, was part of this. The point was not to provide a bench for Jews, it was to segregate the benches so that non-Jewish Germans would not have to sit on a “contaminated” bench. Being treated like below human life for years before hand was terrifying and probably emotionally exhausting.

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A boy sits on a bench in a public park. The words painted on the bench say, “For Aryans only.” By law, German and Austrian Jews were prohibited from using many public facilities except those marked “For Jews only.” In some cities, Jews were not allowed in public parks, swimming pools, or movie theaters. Jews were allowed to shop in stores only during designated hours, usually late in the day when stores had run out of fresh foods.

After Adolf Hitler gained power in 1933, the school curriculum changed.Jewish children in German schools suffered terribly from bullying.

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Biology, along with political education, became compulsory. Children learnt about “worthy” and “unworthy” races, about breeding and hereditary disease. They measured their heads with tape measures, checked the colour of their eyes and texture of their hair against charts of Aryan or Nordic types, and constructed their own family trees to establish their biological, not historical, ancestry…. They also expanded on the racial inferiority of the Jews.

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The Minister of the Interior, Wilhelm Frick, claimed that the idea that  teaching history should be objective was a fallacy of liberalism.  The purpose of history was to teach people that life was always dominated by struggle, that race and blood were central to everything that happened in the past, present and future, and that leadership determined the fate of peoples. Central themes in the new teaching including courage in battle, sacrifice for a greater cause, boundless admiration for the Leader and hatred of Germany’s enemies, the Jews.

In 1933 all Jewish teachers were dismissed from German schools and universities. At this time 12 per cent of all German professors were Jews. During the same year the proportion of Jewish students at universities was reduced to less than 1 per cent, to correspond to the proportion of Jews in Germany.

Exploiting pre-existing images and stereotypes, Nazi propagandists portrayed Jews as an “alien race” that fed off the host nation, poisoned its culture, seized its economy, and enslaved its workers and farmers.

Propaganda slide depicting Jews as the bastard sons of Asian and negroid racial groups

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All school textbooks were withdrawn before new ones were published that reflected the Nazi ideology. Additional teaching materials were issued by Nazi teachers’ organizations in different parts of the country. A directive issued in January 1934 made it compulsory for schools to educate their pupils “in the spirit of National Socialism”

Illustration from a German textbook. The child is saying
“The Jewish nose is bent. It looks like the number six” (1938)

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It has been estimated that by 1936 over 32 per cent of teachers were members of the Nazi Party. This was a much higher figure than for other professions. Teachers who were members, wore their uniforms in the classroom. The teacher would enter the classroom and welcome the group with a ‘Hitler salute’, shouting “Heil Hitler!” Students would have to respond in the same manner. It has been claimed that before Adolf Hitler took power a large proportion pf teachers were members of the German Social Democratic Party. One of the jokes that circulated in Germany during this period referred to this fact: “What is the shortest measurable unit of time? The time it takes a grade-school teacher to change his political allegiance.

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By 1934, all Jewish shops were marked with the yellow Star of David or had the word “Juden” written on the window.

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The eyes have it-Expression of hate.

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Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels was cheerful and without a care when he first met photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt. In a close-up image the Third Reich politician was caught off guard smiling at the League of Nations meeting in Geneva in September 1933.

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Alfred Eisenstaedt (1898–1995), the man behind some of the most memorable pictures of the 20th century, was a professional photographer for almost 70 years. He started working in photography in Weimar Germany in the 1920s. Having fled Nazi Germany in the mid-’30s, he shot for LIFE magazine from its debut in 1936 until it ceased publishing as a weekly in 1972.

After LIFE was shuttered, Eisenstaedt kept photographing until the mid-1990s.

When Goebbels found out LIFE magazine photographer Eisenstaedt was Jewish his expression was quite different.

Subsequently, when Eisenstaedt approached Goebbels for a candid portrait, the politician’s expression was very, very different. Instead of smiling, he scowled for the camera, and the famous photo that resulted shows the man wearing “eyes of hate”. His tense posture transmits an almost palpable enmity.

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A quote from Joseph Goebbels diary showing his hatred toward Jews: “The Jews are now being deported to the east. A fairly barbaric procedure, not to be described in any greater detail, is being used here, and not much more remains of the Jews themselves. In general, it can probably be established that 60 percent of them must be liquidated, while only 40 percent can be put to work […] A judgment is being carried out on the Jews which is barbaric, but fully deserved”

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WWII Newspaper ads,articles and pictures

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This is just a picture blog of random ads ads and pictures which appeared in newspapers during WWII.

In this image provided by the Army Press Relations, although Colonel Floyd E. Dunn, Sioux City, Iowa knows his jungle warfare, when it comes to the tenor saxophone, he gives in to the expert coaching of band leader Corporal Leon D. Weills of West Sommerville, Massachusetts. It all came about when musical-minded GI’s of the Americal division decided to entertain men on the fighting outposts in the South Pacific with probing jive on Oct. 14, 1944. With instruments provided by the Special Service Office, the combat soldiers journeyed through 5000 yards of jungle to put on the show. From left to right the men are: Front row – Pvt. Robert A. Silverdrist, Chicago, Ill.; Cpl. Leon D. Wells, West Sommerville, Mass.; Col. Floyd E. Dunn, Sioux City, Iowa; Pvt. Erric V. Carlson, Tanana, Alaska; Pfc. Harold D. Fisher, Youngstown, Ohio; Pvt. George Zito, Los Angeles, Calif.; Pvt. Perry T. Austin, Kenniwick, Wash.; row two – Pfc. Ben A. Cuatto, Salt Lake City, Utah; Pvt. Ralph C. Kagle, Fornfelt, Mo.; Pfc. Jack A. Davis, Lampeer, Mich.; William D. Holland, South Buro, Mass.; Cpl. Arthur J. Rauhala, Painsville, Ohio; and Pvt. William D. Cribley, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa; Drummer – Pvt. James E. Pabilla, Newark, N.J. (AP Photo/Army Press Relations)

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Seen here is an army troop at Camp Douglas near Salt Lake City in December 1942. (AP Photo)

Military Recreation

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British Royal Navy Recruiting Poster Print 1940

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Imagined German Intelligence Officer thanks British Forces for giving away details of operations.

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The Crossfield family during WWII

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The Gloucester Citizen announces the start of WW2

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WWII Coke Ad illustration Soldier

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The Pilot (Southern Pines, N.C.), October 27, 1944

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WWII Advertisements

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Just because there was a war going on didn’t mean that companies abolished their marketing needs. The advertising trade was still booming. Nothing beats and old fashioned dose of patriotism to get your products sold(or sometimes not sold).Lets face it advertising is really a commercial form of propaganda.

Below are some examples of advertisements from the WWII era.

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According to this May 1944 National Geographic advertisement, “some things”—presumably love and superior tire quality—”never change.” Nevertheless, this General Tire advertisement encourages readers not to buy the company’s tires during wartime for the sake of rationing rubber.

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In this September 1944 National Geographic advertisement, Minneapolis Honeywell Temperature Controls promises homeowners that in the postwar future, they’ll be able to purchase heating and cooling systems that seem straight out of science fiction

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Nestle 1943

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Phillips Bicycles

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Kolynos Toothpaste

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Have a coke and a smile

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Nestle’s, Propaganda Chocolate Sweets WWII Chocolate Is a Fighting Food, USA

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Can’t go without a smoke

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Thanksgiving 1942

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Education for Death- and other WWII propaganda movies.

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During WWII Hollywood did not sit still, it actively contributed to the US propaganda machine.

These propaganda movies were not done by unknown or obscure movie makers. They were done by some of the biggest studios in Tinseltown.One of the more surprising was no other then Walt Disney.

Education for Death: The Making of the Nazi is an animated propaganda short film produced by Walt Disney Productions and released on January 15, 1943, by RKO Radio Pictures, directed by Clyde Geronimi and principally animated by Ward Kimball. The short is based on the non-fiction book of the same name by American author Gregor Ziemer.

A propaganda look into the mind of Hans, a boy born into a German family. Watch as his attitude about the value of human life degrades as he is exposed to Hitler Youth and other Nazi organizations and attitudes.In the end, Hans and the rest of the German soldiers march off to war only to fade into rows of identical graves, with nothing on them except a swastika and a helmet perched on top. Thus Hans’s education is complete – “his education… for death.”

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Der Fuehrer’s Face (originally titled Donald Duck in Nutzi Land) is a 1942 American animated anti-Nazi propaganda short film produced by Walt Disney Productions and released in 1943 by RKO Radio Pictures.

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In World War II, a marching band playing “Der Fuehrer’s Face” passes by Donald Duck’s house. He awakes, has a poor breakfast with stale bread. Then he goes to an army factory where he works in the production of ammunition brainwashed by the Nazi propaganda. Donald Duck has a nervous breakdown with the stressed situation but when he awakes, he finds that he had a nightmare and he actually lives in United States of America.

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Der Fuehrer’s Face won the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film at the 15th Academy Awards. It was the only Donald Duck film to receive the honor.

Given the fact that Adolf Hitler actually had been a great fan of Disney movies,Snow White was his favourite movie, this surely would have antagonized him.

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Gregor Ziemer’s book Education for Death: The Making of the Nazi was also used for another 1943 movie”Hitler’s Children”.

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Hitler’s Children is a 1943 American black-and-white propaganda film made by RKO Radio Pictures. It was directed by the Canadian-American director, Edward Dmytryk, from an adaptation by Emmet Lavery of Gregor Ziemer’s book Education For Death.

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This propaganda piece starts in 1933. Prof. Nichols’ American school in Berlin is next door to a school for the Hitler Youth. Karl, from the latter, is attracted to German-American Anna, but events lead to their separation. Six years later, near the outbreak of war in Europe, Anna is removed from Nichols’ school on presumption of German citizenship. Nichols becomes obsessed with finding her, as Anna undergoes a rather lurid odyssey through the Nazi nightmare.

Hitler – Dead or Alive is a 1942 American war film directed by Nick Grinde.

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The plot of this film was inspired by true events. During the early stages of World War II a prominent American businessman offered a reward of one million dollars to bring Adolf Hitler to justice, dead or alive. Russell Hicks plays the part of the American businessman in this film who hires three gangster ex-convicts released from Alcatraz prison. The gangsters are played by Ward Bond, Warren Hymer and Paul Fix.

The quasi-comic tone of the film turns dead serious at the end, when a desperate Hitler makes a break for it and is shot by the SS officer in charge, who states disdainfully (and ironically): “To think that Germany could produce a piece of filth like you”, and Bond makes a long patriotic speech while facing a firing squad.

In November 2012, while being interviewed by Playboy magazine, filmmaker Quentin Tarantino admitted the inspiration for his film Inglourious Basterds came from Hitler – Dead or Alive.

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The Strange Death of Adolf Hitler is a US-american film,directed by James P. Hogan. It’s probably more of a War movie then Propaganda film. The film follows a man who plans to murder Adolf Hitler and steal his identity.

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A clerk in 1942 Vienna who has a gift for mimicry, is arrested for doing a Hitler impression. The Gestapo decide to give him plastic surgery to look like Hitler so he can take his place in public, acting as a decoy for assassination attempts.

The Hitler Gang is a 1944 American pseudo-documentary film directed by John Farrow, which traces the political rise of Adolf Hitler.

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Described as a “documentary-propaganda” film by its studio, Paramount Pictures, the historical drama is based on documented fact and marks the first serious effort to portray Hitler in film. The filmmakers chose to avoid casting stars in the lead roles, assembling instead a remarkable company of lookalikes to play Hitler, Goebbels, Hess and other leading Nazis.

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This movie shows us the rise of Adolf Hitler from a small radical political adventurer to the dictator of Germany in the way of a gangster film. Except for some minor inaccuracies the historical facts are given in a correct way.

 

 

 

“Loose Lips Sink Ships”-WWII instruction for US service men.

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Millions volunteered or were drafted for military duty during World War II. The majority of these citizen-soldiers had no idea how to conduct themselves to prevent inadvertent disclosure of important information to the enemy. To remedy this, the  US government established rules of conduct. The following is excerpted from a document given to each soldier as he entered the battle area.

WRITING HOMETHINK! Where does the enemy get his information — information that can put you, and has put your comrades, adrift on an open sea: information that has lost battles and can lose more, unless you personally, vigilantly, perform your duty in SAFEGUARDING MILITARY INFORMATION?

THERE ARE TEN PROHIBITED SUBJECTS 

1. Don’t write military information of Army units — their location, strength,, materiel, or equipment.

2. Don’t write of military installations.

3. Don’t write of transportation facilities.

4. Don’t write of convoys, their routes, ports (including ports of embarkation and disembarkation), time en route, naval protection, or war incidents occurring en route.

5. Don’t disclose movements of ships, naval or merchant, troops, or aircraft.

6. Don’t mention plans and forecasts or orders for future operations, whether known or just your guess.

7. Don’t write about the effect of enemy operations.

8. Don’t tell of any casualty until released by proper authority (The Adjutant General) and then only by using the full name of the casualty.

9. Don’t attempt to formulate or use a code system, cipher, or shorthand, or any other means to conceal the true meaning of your letter. Violations of this regulation will result in severe punishment.

10. Don’t give your location in any way except as authorized by proper authority. Be sure nothing you write about discloses a more specific location than the one authorized.

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Talk

SILENCE MEANS SECURITY — If violation of protective measures is serious within written communications it is disastrous in conversations. Protect your conversation as you do your letters, and be even more careful. A harmful letter can be nullified by censorship; loose talk is direct delivery to the enemy.

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If you come home during war your lips must remain sealed and your written hand must be guided by self-imposed censorship. This takes guts. Have you got them or do you want your buddies and your country to pay the price for your showing off. You’ve faced the battle front; its little enough to ask you to face this ‘home front.

 

CAPTUREMost enemy intelligence comes from prisoners. If captured, you are required to give only three facts: YOUR NAME, YOUR GRADE, YOUR ARMY SERIAL NUMBER. Don’t talk, don’t try to fake stories and use every effort to destroy all papers. When you are going into an area where capture is possible, carry only essential papers and plan to destroy them prior to capture if possible. Do not carry personal letters on your person; they tell much about you, and the envelope has on it your unit and organization

More WWII Propganda

It can be argued that the deadliest weapon during WWII was propaganda,below are some examples of WWII propaganda from the allied forces and the axis powers.

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“Propaganda tries to force a doctrine on the whole people… Propaganda works on the general public from the standpoint of an idea and makes them ripe for the victory of this idea.” Adolf Hitler wrote these words in his book Mein Kampf (1926), in which he first advocated the use of propaganda to spread the ideals of National Socialism—among them racism, antisemitism, and anti-Bolshevism.Nazi propaganda often portrayed Jews as engaged in a conspiracy to provoke war.

Illustration from a German antisemitic children’s book titled “Trust No Fox in the Green Meadow and No Jew on his Oath” (translation from German). The headlines depicted in the image say “Jews are our misfortune” and “How the Jew cheats.” Germany, 1936.

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Nazi propaganda photo depicts friendship between an “Aryan” and a black woman. The caption states: “The result! A loss of racial pride.” Germany, prewar.

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Nazi propaganda poster warning Germans about the dangers of east European “subhumans.

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Even Santa Claus was used to promote the war efforts

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Germany: Postcard of a German Soldier Arriving Home During Christmas

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Comic book Super Heroes in WWII

 

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I am actually not a great fan of Comic books or Graphic Novels as they are called now, although I did read them as a kid but was never really fascinated by them.

However I do like the notion of Super Heroes and I do like them portrayed in the movies.

But in a time when you are not sure if there will be a tomorrow it is important to have something to cling to, albeit fictional and especially youngsters.

WWII was for most people a time of great uncertainty and it was important for many young men and women to be able to escape the daily realities every now and them.Comic books were a great tools to do just that. To dream away and to hope that all would be great again.

And of course the propaganda value was pricesless.

Here are some examples of ‘Comic Book heroes that helped some kids cope with the realities of WWII

Nick Fury

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Before the one-eyed cigar chomper became the director of S.H.I.E.L.D.(played ny Samuel L. Jackson), Nick Fury was waist deep in the trenches of World War II. Fighting alongside Captain America, Bucky, and the Howling Commandos, Sgt. Fury played an instrumental part in defeating the Nazis and their fictional brethren, HYDRA. It was in the war where Fury discovered his leadership skills and the true definition of a selfless hero. With the tools and experiences he gained abroad, Fury acquired the smarts needed to become the Marvel Universe’s top super sleuth.

Captain America

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The cover to Captain America Comics #1 says it all. When America needed a hero to confront the Nazi regime even before World War II began, creators Joe Simon and Jack Kirby gave the nation one of its boldest icons. As Captain America, Sgt. Steve Rogers saved the world time and time again from the tyranny of the Third Reich. But even after the war ended, Captain America did not. When the Avengers resuscitated Cap from suspended animation decades later, Rogers continued to fight for the morals and ideals that founded this nation. Sporting the country’s colors proudly across his uniform, Captain America is the true comic book embodiment American patriotism.

Comic Propaganda

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In modern times, comic book superheroes tend to view armed conflict with a healthy dose of skepticism regardless of which side they’re on. But that wasn’t the case during World War II, when costumed do-gooders from Superman all the way down to the lowliest nobody of a crime fighter eagerly signed up to wallop the Axis powers on behalf of Uncle Sam. And hey, if they had to break the law and do a few political incorcect things to get the job done, who were we to question that?

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The Eternal Jew-Art Exhibition

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The title mentions “Art Exhibition” but this is really for lack of a better description. In reality it was Propaganda disguised as an art exhibition. The exhibition opened today 79 years ago.

The Eternal Jew (Der ewige Jude) was the title of an exhibition of degenerate art (entartete Kunst) displayed at the Library of the German Museum in Munich from 8 November 1937 to 31 January 1938. The exhibition attracted 412,300 visitors, over 5,000 per day.

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After the exhibition ended in Munich, it was displayed in Vienna from 2 August until 23 October 1938 and subsequently in Berlin from 12 November 1938 until 31 January 1939.

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Although this was one of the most famous Nazi-sponsored exhibition of degenerate art, it was preceded by a number of other exhibitions in cities such as Mannheim, Karlsruhe, Dresden, Munich, Berlin and Vienna.The works of art displayed at these exhibitions generally consisted of works executed by avant-garde artists, especially expressionist German artists such as Max Beckmann, Ernst Kirchner and Emil Nolde, who had become recognized and esteemed in the 1920s.

The objective of the exhibition was not to hold these works up as exemplary and admirable but to present them as worthy of condemnation and derision.The large numbers of attendees may indicate that the art shown was actually more popular than the Nazis supposed, although entrance was free, another attraction to the public.Attendance of over two million visitors was recorded.

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The exhibition  was followed up with the publication of a book of the same title, consisting of 265 photographs, each with a derogatory caption asserting the degeneracy of the Jewish race.

On the 5th of September 1941 a similar exhibition called “Le Juif et la France” (The Jew and France) opened in Paris.

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In November 1940 a film with the same title was released, it had been commissioned by Joseph Goebbels and was directed by Fritz Hippler

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The exhibitions and the film are prime examples how a well developed propaganda machine can effectively brainwash the masses.Unfortunately this is a lesson which we still haven’t learned.

Der Stürmer-Nazi Propaganda tool

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Der Stürmer was an anti-Semitic “tabloid style” newspaper published by Julius Streicher from 1923 almost continuously through to the end of World War II. Der Stürmer was viewed by Hitler as playing a  significant role in the Nazi propaganda machinery and a useful tool in influencing the “common man on the street”.

It was a significant part of Nazi propaganda and was vehemently anti-Semitic. the paper’s tag line was “The Jews are our misfortube”.Unlike the Völkischer Beobachter the official party paper which gave itself an outwardly serious appearance.

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Der Stürmer often ran obscene material such as antisemitic caricatures of Jews and accusations of blood libel, as well as sexually explicit, anti-Catholic, anti-Communist, and anti-monarchist propaganda.

The newspaper originated at Nuremberg during Adolf Hitler’s attempt to establish power and control. During that struggle, Streicher was accused by the opposition of the Nazi party as being “a liar, a coward, of having unsavory friends, mistreating his wife and of flirting with women.

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Despite the accusations, the first copy of Der Stürmer was published on 20 April 1923.Der Stürmer’s circulation grew over time, distributing to a large percentage of the German population as well as Argentina, Brazil, Canada and the United States.Streicher wanted Der Stuermer to appeal to the common man, to the worker with little time to read.

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Thus, Der Stuermer’s articles used short sentences and a simple vocabulary. Ideas were repeated. Headlines grabbed a reader’s attention. And the cartoons were easily understood.

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Rather then going into the ins and outs of the ‘Newspaper’ below some of the paper’s front pages and cartoons, which will explain why it was such a powerful tool.

Julius Streicher, warned of a Jewish program for world domination in this 1934 issue. The article, titled “Who is the Enemy?” blamed Jews for destroying social order and claimed that Jews wanted war, while the rest of the world wanted peace.

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A Nazi is pumping poison gas into a tunnel beneath an oak tree representing Germany. Dead Jewish rats are strewn about.  The head lines says “The poisoned King”with the context : “When the vermin are dead, the German oak will flourish.” Since this is from 1927 it clearly indicates the plans by the Nazi’s in relation to gassing the jews,long before Kristallnacht and the Wannsee convention.

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1934 Stürmer issue: “Storm above Judah” – criticizing institutional churches as “Judaized” organizations.

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Front page of the most popular issue ever of the Nazi publication,Der Stürmer, with a reprint of a medieval depiction of a purported ritual murder committed by Jews.der-sturmer-ritual-murder

Der Stürmer, was removed from news kiosks during the Games as a concession to the International Olympic Committee. But the paper was still published, using racist slurs and caricatures to malign Jews in its special Olympics issue. July 1936.

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This image depicts the “Jew” as a warmonger who looks on approvingly as the non-Jewish world is crucified on a cross marked “war” (Krieg).

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Julius Streicher was not a member of the military and did not take part in planning the Holocaust, or the invasion of other nations. Yet his pivotal role in inciting the extermination of Jews was significant enough, in the prosecutors’ judgment, to include him in the indictment of Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal – which sat in Nuremberg, where Streicher had once been an unchallenged authority. Most of the evidence against Streicher came from his numerous speeches and articles over the years. In essence, prosecutors contended that Streicher’s articles and speeches were so incendiary that he was an accessory to murder, and therefore as culpable as those who actually ordered the mass extermination of Jews (such as Hans Frank and Ernst Kaltenbrunner). They further argued that he kept them up when he was well aware Jews were being slaughtered.

He was acquitted of crimes against peace, but found guilty of crimes against humanity, and sentenced to death on 1 October 1946. The judgment against him read, in part:

For his 25 years of speaking, writing and preaching hatred of the Jews, Streicher was widely known as ‘Jew-Baiter Number One.’ In his speeches and articles, week after week, month after month, he infected the German mind with the virus of anti-Semitism, and incited the German people to active persecution. … Streicher’s incitement to murder and extermination at the time when Jews in the East were being killed under the most horrible conditions clearly constitutes persecution on political and racial grounds in connection with war crimes, as defined by the Charter, and constitutes a crime against humanity.