Two Realities in Auschwitz

I can’t think of any place on earth that was more evil than Auschwitz, although other camps that had perhaps more cruelty, But it is the scale of the cruelty, torture and murder that makes Auschwitz pure evil, a literal hell on earth. The picture above is of Yisrael and Zelig Jacob, the younger brothers of Lili Jacob. They were both murdered in Auschwitz.

Below is a photograph of Jewish women and children deported from Hungary, separated from the men, line up for selection. Auschwitz camp, Poland, May 1944. Their reality was death.

However, some who had a completely different reality. They could enjoy themselves after a day’s work. They could relax in Solahütte a little-known resort in Poland for the Nazi German guards, administrators, and auxiliary personnel of the Auschwitz/Birkenau/Buna facilities during the Holocaust. Although postcards of the era sent by German staff sometimes bore the mysterious pre-printed return address “SS Hütte Soletal” [Solahütte], the rustic hamlet remained largely unknown to historians until 2007, when the Höcker Album of memorabilia owned by SS officer Karl-Friedrich Höcker including vintage Auschwitz photographs was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, which then released images from the album online for study. Some of the photographs identified Solahütte for the first time.

Nazi officers and female Auschwitz staff gleefully pose on a wooden bridge at Solahütte.

Members of the SS female auxiliaries sit on a fence railing in Solahütte as Höcker passes out bowls of blueberries.

This to me is probably the most incomprehensible aspect of the Holocaust. How could human beings enjoy themselves knowing about the evil that was committed in their names and often by themselves? Maybe I am just wrong in thinking of them as human beings.

sources

https://allthatsinteresting.com/karl-hocker-auschwitz-photos#1

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/photo/nazi-ceremony-in-auschwitz-birkenau

https://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/album_auschwitz/lili-jacob.asp

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/photo/jewish-women-and-children-upon-arrival-in-auschwitz?parent=en%2F10897

Evil Words by Evil Men

I was struggling to find a title for this piece. I was thinking of using words like testimonies or confessions, but neither of those words reflect the reality in my opinion.

Testimony is too soft because it lessens the effect of the severity of the actions of the perpetrators. On the other hand. testimony in the context of the victims and survivors of the Holocaust strengthen the descriptions of the crimes.

Confession is a way of looking for forgiveness and I don’t think that is not my prerogative to forgive them, that is only for the victims and their families if they wish to do so.

Starting with the words of Oscar Gröning, as pictured above. He was known as the bookkeeper of Auschwitz.

Oscar Gröning: It was not long before I was assigned to supervise the luggage collection of an incoming transport.

When this was over, it was just like a fairground, there was lots of rubbish left and amongst this rubbish were ill people and those unable to walk. And the way these people were treated horrified me. For example, a child who was lying there naked was simply pulled by the legs and chucked into a lorry to be driven away, and when it screamed like a sick chicken, then they bashed it against the edge of the lorry, so it shut up. We were convinced by our worldview that we had been betrayed by the entire world and that there was a great conspiracy of the Jews against us.

Interviewer: But surely, when it comes to children you must realise that they could not have possibly done anything to you?

Oskar Gröning: The children, they’re not the enemy at the moment. The enemy is the blood inside them. The enemy is the growing up to be a Jew which could become dangerous, and because of that, the children were included as well.

Interviewer: But…aren’t you sorry that you made your own life more comfortable while millions actually died?

Oskar Gröning: Absolutely not. Everybody is looking out for themselves. So many people died in the war, not only Jews.

So many things happened, so many were shot, and so many snuffed it. People were burnt to death, so many were burnt, if I thought about all of that I wouldn’t be able to live one minute longer.

The special situation at Auschwitz led to friendships which I’m still saying today that I like to look back on with joy.

Heinrich Arthur Matthes was the deputy commandant of the Treblinka extermination camp, a Nazi Party concentration camp from 1942 to 1943, and was involved in giving the orders.

During the entire time I was in Treblinka, I served in the upper camp. The upper camp was that part of Treblinka with the gas chambers, where the Jews were killed and their corpses laid in large pits and later burned.

About 14 Germans carried out services in the upper camp. There were two Ukrainians permanently in the upper camp. One of them was called Nikolai, the other was a short man, I don’t remember his name… These two Ukrainians who lived in the upper camp served in the gas chambers. They also took care of the engine room when Fritz Schmidt was absent. Usually, this Schmidt was in charge of the engine room, and in my opinion, as a civilian, he was either a mechanic or a driver.

Altogether, six gas chambers were active. According to my estimate, about 300 people could enter each gas chamber. The people went into the gas chamber without resistance. Those who were there in the end, the Ukrainian guards had to push inside. Personally saw how the Ukrainians pushed the people with their rifle butts

The gas chambers were closed for about thirty minutes. Then Schmidt stopped the gassing, and the two Ukrainians who were in the engine room opened the gas chambers from the other side.”

Left to right:Paul Bredow, Willi Mentz, Max Möller, Josef Hirtreiter

Willi Mentz also worked at the Treblinka extermination camp during the Operation Reinhard phase of the Holocaust in Poland. Mentz was known as “Frankenstein” at the camp.

When I came to Treblinka the camp commandant was a doctor named Dr. Eberl. He was very ambitious. It was said that he ordered more transports
than could be “processed” in the camp. That meant that trains had to
wait outside the camp because the occupants of the previous transport
had not yet all been killed. At the time it was very hot and as a
result of the long wait inside the transport trains in the intense
heat, many people died. At the time whole mountains of bodies lay on
the platform. The Hauptsturmfuehrer Christian Wirth came to Treblinka
and kicked up a terrific row. And then one day Dr. Eberl was no
longer there.
For about two months I worked in the upper section of the camp and
then after Eberl had gone everything in the camp was reorganized. The
two parts of the camp were separated by barbed wire fences. Pine
branches were used so that you could not see through the fences. The
same thing was done along the route from the “transfer” area to the
gas chambers.

Finally, new and larger gas chambers were built. I think that there
were now five or six larger gas chambers. I cannot say exactly how
many people these large gas chambers held. If the small gas chambers
could hold 80-100 people, the large ones could probably hold twice
that number.

Following the arrival of a transport, six to eight cars would be
shunted into the camp, coming to a halt at the platform there. The
commandant, his deputy Franz, Kuettner, and Stadie or Maetzig would be
here waiting as the transport came in. Further, SS members were also
present to supervise the unloading: for example, Genz and Belitz had
to make sure that there was no one left in the car after the occupants had been ordered to get out.

When the Jews had got off, Stadie or Maetzig would have a short word
with them. They were told something to the effect that they were a
resettlement transport, that they would be given a bath, and that they
would receive new clothes. They were also instructed to maintain quiet
and discipline. They would continue their journey the following day.

Then the transport was taken off to the so-called “transfer” area.
The women had to undress in huts and the men out in the open. The
women were then led through a passageway, known as the “tube,” to the
gas chambers. On the way, they had to pass a hut where they had to hand
in their jewelry and valuables.”

I know there will be people who will say that these men probably had no choice. If they didn’t follow orders they were likely to be killed themselves. However, there are no records whatsoever that any member of the Wehrmacht or SS were punished for refusing to kill Jews. Those who murdered or was complicit in the murders did so of their own free will. None of these men showed remorse and they all lived a long time after the war, without any real consequences for their actions.

sources

https://www.pbs.org/auschwitz/40-45/victims/perps.html#groning

https://groups.google.com/g/alt.revisionism/c/bYlTZ-qQi8I?pli=1

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/testimonies-of-nazi-ss-at-treblinka

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The Austrian Adolf Schicklgruber-AKA Adolf Hitler.

-The question “Would You Go Back to 1889 and kill baby Hitler?” was once posed by The New York Times Magazine. 42 % of the people answered “Yes”. Jeb Bush, younger brother of former US President George W. Bush, answered this question with “Hell yeah, I would, You gotta step up, man”

I do believe many people would agree with that sentiment, and I have to admit I probably would too. However the fact is that time travel maybe possible in theory, practically and realistically it is not.

When it comes to Adolf Hitler there are a few other facts, aside from the most obvious one that he probably was the most evil man who ever lived, there are some lesser known facts.

For starters technically he wasn’t actually called Adolf Hitler, his real name should have been Adolf Schicklgruber.

Hitler’s dad , Alois Hitler Sr. was the illegitimate son of Maria Anna Schicklgruber, there was never a mention of a Father on the birth certificate. Maria Anna Schicklgruber did marry a Johann Georg Hiedler, when Alois Sr, was 5 years old. This means young Alois got the surname “Hiedler”. Alois was then made legitimate and his baptismal record amended by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois’s father. It is vague what happened next but for some reason, probably due to a spelling or clerical error the name was recorded as Hitler for both Alois and his stepfather.

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20 ,1889. To be honest I am not going to write about him in this blog. I have already done so in other blogs. However in a local newspaper his birthdate was dated as the 22nd of April. Again this is probably a typo, and I presume that data verification wasn’t a top priority in a rural Austrian town in 1889. The newspaper listed all births from April 19 to April 26, 1889.

It is probably a well known fact that he was born in Austria, in a small town called Braunau am Inn. But it is probably less known that his birthplace is still in that town, causing them a few issues because it has become a bit of a shrine for Neo Nazis. At the time of Hitler’s birth, the building was a modest guest house, where Hitler’s parents rented rooms in connection with his father’s job as a minor customs official at the nearby Austrian–German border. The Hitler family lived in the building only until Adolf was three years old.

In April 1989, (two weeks before the centenary of Hitler’s birth) a memorial was placed directly in front of the house on public ground. The stone for the memorial came from a quarry on the grounds of the former Mauthausen Concentration Camp, near Linz, Austria. The inscription on the memorial reads.

“For Peace, Freedom
and Democracy.
Never Again Fascism.
Millions of Dead Warn [us]”.

Many in the town want the building to be demolished but to me that is like burying history. Just because you destroy a building doesn’t mean he wasn’t born there. History needs to be accepted in all its forms, even when it is uncomfortable.

What many people don’t realize is hat Hitler only became German citizen in February 1932, which was only a few months prior to July 1932 presidential election, Hitler was a candidate in that election.

Six years later in 1938 Hitler annexed his native Austria. He was welcomed by most Austrians as a leader and hero, even in his Birthplace.

Hitler though wasn’t a hero, far from it, what always puzzles me though is how did a man like that become so powerful and even a cult figure. His policies were based on vague promises and distorted truths.

But then when I look around the world now and up to recent , there were and there are still leaders who seem to have mirrored themselves on Hitler, well at least to an extend

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SOURCES

https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/10/killing-baby-hitler-ethics/412273/

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-30539384

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/adolf-hitler

Josef Mengele-Angel of Death

Josef Mengele was born in Günzburg on 16 March 1911, the oldest of three sons of Walburga (née Hupfauer) and Karl Mengele. His two younger brothers were Karl Jr. and Alois.

There is an eerie coincidence here, Alois was also the name of the Father of the man he came to admire and serve, Adolf Hitler.

I will not go too deep into the crimes of Josef Mengele as such, because so much has already been written about him, even I have done several pieces in the past. His Father Karl Mengele, a prosperous manufacturer of farming implements. In 1935 Josef got a PhD in physical anthropology at the University of Munich. He also held a doctoral degree in genetic medicine.

A privileged and educated man and yet he could not see how inhumane he was. Or maybe he didn’t want to see. With a slight flick of the finger he would decide who would live or die. Even those who initially were selected to live were subjected to medical experiments or slave labour, eventually often resulting in death.

The most disturbing fact about Mengele is that he died a free man. I have no doubt that he was helped escape Germany after the war and not necessarily only by fellow Nazis. It would not surprise me if he actual had surrendered to the allies, he would have been part of Operation Paperclip, the operation which ensured that many of the Nazi scientists got jobs in the USA and other countries, and not just mediocre positions but highly paid jobs within the scientific fraternity.

But the fact that many of his crimes were well documented and used as evidence during the International Military Tribunal, probably meant that the allies could not be seen endorsing this Angel of Death. Having that said if they would have been serious in capturing him, it would have been very easy to do so because he wasn’t really that hard to find.

Farmers,professors,locksmiths and other ordinary men turned evil.

1

I know it is easy to call people like Rudolf Höss and others who worked in Auschwitz monters, and to en extent I can understand that, I have done so in the past.

However when you call them monsters you take the risk of given them an excuse for their acts, because we only expect evil from monsters. These men were human beings, evil human beings but human beings nonetheless. That too me makes it even more shocking because all of these men did these evil crimes out of their own free will.

I know some will dispute this that some of the guards at Auschwitz and other camps were only following orders. But anyone knows killing innocent people has nothing to do with war but everything to do with annihilation. There are no records of any SS officers or others inthe German army being punished for not executing innocent people. So the notion hat they would be killed themselves if they didn’t kill is a myth.

Most of these men weren’t professional soldiers before the war, they had ordinary jobs. Rudolf Höss ,pictured above was an agricultural officer.

Below are some further examples.

Franz Hubert, a locksmith

2

Fritz Radimersky, a German laborer.

3

Fritz Taddiken, German painter.

4

Johann Kremer, German university professor.

5

Robert Gauger, German postal worker.

6

Alois Balletshofer, farmer.

7

Josef Kramer, German merchant.

8

Each one of these men had a role to play in one way or another in the darkest era of mankind, the Holocaust.

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The twisted evil mind of Mengele.

Capture

People sometimes think that Mengele was the only ‘Doctor’ in Auschwitz, but in fact there were more then a 30 physicians working there.

Mengele however was the most notorious one, he also seemed to be the most enthusiastic sicentist, He had a particularly evil mind. I am not going to talk about the experiments because I have written about those before as have others.

I am more interested in that evil twisted mind, a mind that could show ‘kindness’ and extreme evil at the same time.

One survivor once said of Mengele.

“He was capable of being so kind to the children, to have them become fond of him, to bring them sugar, to think of small details in their daily lives, and to do things we would genuinely admire.And then, next to that, the crematoria smoke, and these children, tomorrow or in a half-hour, he is going to send them there.”

In the documentary The Last Laugh ,Renee Firestone recalled an encounter she had with Mengele where he examined her and her sister Klara. Mengele had seen Renee had some issues with her tonsils and told her that get that seen to whenever she got the chance, at the same time he send her sister Klara to the gas chambers.

Even when he showed up at the selections when the transports arrived some survivors recalled “the impression of a gentle and cultured man who had cheerful expression on his face, almost like he had fun, he was very playful.”

On the other hand he got turn extremely evil within seconds, especially when his ‘rules’ were broken . One time a mother refused to be separated from her teenage daughter and scratched the face of an SS guard who was tasked to  enforce Mengele’s decision. Mengele drew his gun and shot both the woman and her daughter. Still fuming with anger, he ordered that all the people from that transport whom he had previously selected as workers  were to be be send to the gas chamber, to be murdered.

On question I often ask myself is if the Nazis had never come to power, what kind of physician would Mengele have been? I believe that the evil he displayed in the camps he worked was already in him, the Nazis only gave him the opportunity to carry out his evil acts and experiments ‘legally’.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2, however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thank you. To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the PayPal link. Many thanks.

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Sources

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0039625720300734

https://candlesholocaustmuseum.org/file_download/inline/25d72a3f-bb51-4c0c-9c72-ac1ed390e57e

https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/handle/10822/553409

 

The execution of 5 physicians.

Trial

June 2,1948 was one of those rare days where justice was actually carried out. So many who were instrumental in the murder of millions during the Holocaust, did either serve no time or very little, leave alone receiving death sentences. Even many of those who did receive a death sentence had their sentence reduced.

But on this day 72 years ago 5 Nazi physicians were hanged. I will not waste too much time on these 5 so called Doctors I will only go into the crimes they were charged with during the ‘United States of America v. Karl Brandt, et al. aka Doctor’s Trial’  and some of their final words.

Karl Brandt

kb

1.Conspiracy to commit war crimes and crimes against humanity as described in counts 2 and 3;
2.War crimes: performing medical experiments, without the subjects’ consent, on prisoners of war and civilians of occupied countries, in the course of which experiments the defendants committed murders, brutalities, cruelties, tortures, atrocities, and other inhuman acts. Also planning and performing the mass murder of prisoners of war and civilians of occupied countries, stigmatized as aged, insane, incurably ill, deformed, and so on, by gas, lethal injections, and diverse other means in nursing homes, hospitals, and asylums during the Euthanasia Program and participating in the mass murder of concentration camp inmates;
3.Crimes against humanity: committing crimes described under count 2 also on German nationals;
4.Membership in a criminal organization, the SS. The charges against him included special responsibility for, and participation in, Freezing, Malaria, LOST Gas, Sulfanilamide, Bone, Muscle and Nerve Regeneration and Bone Transplantation, Sea-Water, Epidemic Jaundice, Sterilization, and Typhus Experiments.

His final words

“It is no shame to stand upon the scaffold. This is nothing but political revenge. I have served my Fatherland as others before me.” he went on with his speech but at that stage a hood was placed over his head.While he still was talking he was hanged.

Wolfram Sievers

WS

Wolfran Sievers was charged with being a member of an organization declared criminal by the International Military Tribunal (the SS), and was implicated in the commission of war crimes and crimes against humanity. In his defense, he alleged that as early as 1933, he had been a member of an anti-Nazi resistance movement which planned to assassinate Hitler and Himmler.

 

Waldemar Hoven

wh

Guilty of war crimes, crimes against humanity and membership in a criminal organization. Special responsibility of typhus and other vaccine experiments in the Buchenwald concentration camp.

Viktor Brack

vb

During the Doctors’ trial, Brack was convicted of murder of victims in the T4 Euthanasia Program. The program was later applied under secret order “Action 14f13”; the extermination of those concentration camp inmates deemed unable to work.  Additionally to his crimes in the T4 program he also devised the plan of sterilizing young and strong Jews they were being  sterilized without being aware of the process. It was done by using X Ray radiation . These young man were used in forced labour.

Karl Gebhardt

kARL G

He was personal physician to Reichsfuehrer SS Himmler and President of the German Red Cross. He was responsible for medical and surgical experiments on prisoners in the concentration camps at Ravensbrück  and Auschwitz. In Ravensbrück he carried out a series of experiments on Ravensbrück concentration camp prisoners, breaking their legs and infecting them with various organisms in order to prove the worthlessness of the drugs in treating gas gangrene. basically to proof Himmler wrong.He was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity

In total there were 23 defendants at the Doctor’s Trial but only these 5 men received the death sentence and were all hanged on June 2, 1948. They had an easier death then their vicctims.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2, however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thank you. To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the PayPal link. Many thanks.

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sources

https://web.archive.org/web/20071013160628/http://ushmm.org/research/doctors/persons.htm

http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/documents/11-brief-prosecution-closing-brief?q=*#p.7

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/photo/nazi-doctor-victor-brack-on-trial

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/photo/defendant-karl-brandt-testifies-during-the-doctors-trial

Wikipedia

http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/documents/4134-extract-from-testimony-of-karl?q=karl+brandt#p.3

 

Enno Lolling evil for the sake of being evil.

Enno

I probably could go into great detail in relation to Fr Lolling, but to be honest he is not worth it. The only reason why I am doing a blog about him is that today marks the 75th anniversary of his suicide.

Now I don’t want to go into all the mental complexities that people have before they decide killing themselves. in Dr Lolling’s case as in the case of other Nazi criminals the only reason was cowardice. They knew what awaited them and rather then facing up to their crimes they decided that suicide was the better option. Ironically in Dr Lolling’s case and also that of others , there probably would have been a bigger chance that he would have gotten away with his crimes, because so many did.

On March 3, 1942, he was put in charge of Amt D III of the SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt(SS Main Economic and Administrative Office for Medical Services and Camp Hygiene headquartered at Oranienburg, at the edge of Sachsenhausen concentration camp. This promotion put him in  charge of all medical units and doctors at all SS concentration camps.

On his orders thousands were murdered who were no longer able to work. Later on in the winter of 1942, he also ordered anyone who became ill and needed more then 4 weeks to recover to be killed.

On November 9, 1943, he was promoted to the rank of SS-Standartenführer, but also  continued  his position at Amt D III.

After this final promotion, Lolling ordered the collection of tattoos from prisoners. The tattoos  were to be prepared in different ways and to be send to Berlin. Of course in order to do this and to preserve the integrity of the skin and tattoo, healthy prisoners were killed with an injection to the heart Additional to this he ordered other SS Doctors  to experiment with shrinking human heads and at least three were shrunk.

In general I can’t see very little if any scientific justification for the experiments which were conducted during the Holocaust, except perhaps for curiosity. As so many other crimes committed by these so called men of science, all of this evil was done for the sake of being evil.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2, however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thank you. To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the PayPal link. Many thanks.

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Sources

Notorious Nazi Doctors (The Eclectic Collection Book 4)

https://collections.ushmm.org/search/?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=Enno+Lolling&search_field=all_fields

https://phdn.org/archives/www.mazal.org/Lifton/LiftonT172.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enno_Lolling

 

The parallel universe that was Auschwitz.

FUN

If you wouldn’t know the wider context of the picture, you would smile at it and think” a lovely picture of young people in the military enjoying themselves”.

And that is exactly what they did , they did enjoy themselves. However this weren’t just some random service men and women. These men and women all had a part to play in the industrial murder of innocent men,women and children, sometimes even newborn babies.

These men and women were all officers and guards of the Auschwitz concentration camp. This photo and others were taken by Karl Hoecker arrived at Auschwitz on May 25, 1944. He was adjutant to Richard Baer, who was a commandant of Auschwitz I concentration camp from May 1944 to December 1944.

karl

Prior to Auschwitz he worked in Majdanek . Majadenke Camp records showed that between May 1943 and May 1944 Höcker had acquired at least 3,610 kilograms of Zyklon B  for use in Majdanek from the Hamburg firm of Tesch & Stabenow.

People often ask me what pictures do I find I most disturbing from the Holocaust. It is not the pictures of children, although they churn my stomach every time I see them. Nor is it the pictures of the heaps of bodies piled on top of each other . It is the pictures like the ones from the Höcker album, which show such an apparent parallel universe that existed in Auschwitz and the sheer evil of people enjoying themselves after work , when they would have been responsible or at least witnessed at first hand, the destruction of so many innocent  lives, only because of hate fueled by a sick ideology.

Some of these men and women had children themselves, yet they did not hesitate killing children of other parents. As if the lives of Jews and other groups just didn’t matter.

kids

singing

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The experiments of Horst Schumann.

Horst

I have to warn you up front, this is not an easy read. I will try to stick to the facts and keep my emotions out of it, regardless on how difficult that will be. And I will keep it only to the experiments and the post war situation for Horst Schumann.

Horst Schumann  was an SS-Sturmbannführer and medical doctor who conducted sterilization and castration experiments at Auschwitz he was especially interested in the mass sterilization of Jews by using  X-ray radiation.

He worked at Block 30 at the women’s hospital, here set up an x-ray unit in 1942.                 (the picture below is from an x ray machine in Auschwitz but I don’t know if this one was used by Schumann)

x ray

Dr. Schumann did not have any particular qualifications for medical research. His duties prior to his research into sterilization involved the direction of killing centers and selection of victims.  By 1942, the doctor and his assistants were at work on X-ray sterilization experiments at Block 30 in Birkenau.  In these experiments, men and women had their reproductive areas exposed to a five to eight minute dose of X-rays. Depending on the intensity of the dose, this resulted in external burns or worse. Following exposure, some of the women and men underwent operations to remove reproductive organs for evaluation. Ovaries and testicles were removed and examined. The men also were subject to other brutalizing medical procedures involving semen extraction.  Many of the victims died from complications following the surgeries. The survivors were not as likely as others to survive assignment to work details in their weakened condition. Roughly one thousand male and female prisoners were subjected to X-ray sterilization with about two hundred of them undergoing follow-up extractive surgery.

(. Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (Basic Books, 2000), pp. 25, 247, 274-282.)

book

Both men and women were forcibly sterilized . They were positioned repeatedly for a number of minutes between two x-ray machines, the rays were aimed  aiming at their sexual organs. Most victims succumbed  to the treatment and died after great suffering, Either that or they were gassed because the injuries they sustained made them unfit to work .Men’s testicles were removed and sent to Breslau for histopathological examination. Schumann chose his test persons himself. They were always young, healthy, good-looking Jewish men, women and girls but who would often look like old people afterwards. Often the intestines were also affected. Another element   of Schumann’s experiments was to check whether the radiation had worked, For this they used the so-called semen check. The method was by inserting  a stick covered with a rubber hose was into the rectum of the victim and the glands stimulated until ejaculation occurred so that the ejaculate could be tested for sperm. These samples were also sent to the University of Breslau  for examination.

Schumann selected several women from Block 10 at the main camp of Auschwitz.  To control the radiation on women, prisoner doctors ,Dr. Maximilian Samuel and Dr. Wladislaw Dering had to remove an ovary from a healthy woman.

Another experiment Schumann conducted was typhus experiment. He did this  by injecting people with blood from typhus patients and would then attempt to cure the newly infected subjects.

After the war he was  a sports doctor for the city of Gladbeck. But when he was identified in 1951 the East German government issued a warrant for his arrest. He managed to evade capture and worked for 3 years as a ships doctor. He had no German passport but in 1954 he applied for a passport in Japan, which was issued to him under his own name. He then fled to Egypt but shortly after he settled in Khartoum in the Sudan as head of a hospital. In 1962 he was forced to flee Sudan after he was recognized by an Auschwitz survivor. He went to Ghana where he received protection from the President

In 1966 he was extradited to West Germany where he stood trial in Frankfurt on September 23,1970. However due to bad health he only served about 18 months in Jail.

He eventually died on 5 May 1983.age 77. A lot older then most of the victims he killed.

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Sources

http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2017/ph241/payzer2/

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/horst-schumann

http://auschwitz.org/en/history/medical-experiments/horst-schumann