Eduard and Alexander Hornemann-used as experiments and murdered

Eduard and Alexander Hornemann are two of the 20 Bullenhuser Damm children who were murdered on April 20,1945. I have written about the Bullenhuser Damm children before, but I just want to focus on these 2 brothers now. The reason being , at another time it could have been my boys whose names would have been on that list.

Like Eduard and Alexander’s father, I too worked for Philips at one stage in my life.

Eduard, the elder of the two Hornemann brothers, was born on 1 January, 1933. He was known as Edo in the family. Alexander was born on 31 May 1936 and was nicknamed Lexje. The family were from Eindhoven in the Netherlands.

The father, Philip (aka Flip)Carel Hornemann, worked for Philips. After the occupation of the Netherlands by German forces, he and another 100 Jewish colleagues were deployed into a special department of the company. His wife Elisabeth hid on a farm with their son Alexander, whilst Eduard was taken in on another farm. When the Jewish employees of Philips were taken to Vught Concentration camp, Elisabeth Hornemann followed her husband with her two sons.

On August 18, 1943, German troops surrounded the Philips plant in Eindhoven, and arrested all the Jews. Philip Carel Hornemann and the rest of the Jewish employees were sent to Vught, a Dutch concentration camp, where they were put to work in a Philips operation that employed over 3,000 of the prisoners.

The Philips workers received extra rations and were given the special privilege of living together with their wives and children. When a Philips Corporation representative told Alexander’s mother that the company could guarantee her family’s safety only if she joined her husband in the camp, she felt that she had no choice but to go.

But prior to that their lives had already been interrupted. In 1942 the family lived in the Staringstraat in Eindhoven. The Nazis them to move to Gagelstraat, because they have to make way for a Nazi-minded family.

On June 3, 1944, the Hornemanns were deported to the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp in Poland. The 2 boys remained with their mother and were sent to the women’s barracks. Conditions in the camp were horrendous. There was little food, and disease was rampant. Alexander’s mother contracted typhoid fever three months after their arrival, and died soon after. Philip died from exhaustion on transport to another camp.

Kurt Heissmeyer was a SS physician and the nephew of the senior SS officer August Heissmeyer. He was working to obtain his Professorship, which required original research.

Although previously research was dismissed ,Heissmeyer’s hypothesis was that injecting of live tuberculosis bacilli into subjects , the bacilli would function as a vaccine. Another aspect of his experiment was based on the Nazi racial theory that race played a factor in developing tuberculosis. By proving his theory he injected live tuberculosis bacilli into the lungs and bloodstream of 20 Jewish children, at the Neuengamme concentration camp. These were the 20 children selected by Joseph Mengele, amongst them were the 2 Hornemann boys. Eduard and Alexander Hornemann were brought to Neuengamme Concentration Camp on 28 November 1944.

On April 20, 1945, the children are taken to the abandoned Bullenhuser Schule. They were cheerful, happy to get out of the camp. The children were given a morphine injection that evening. Just before the injection, they were that they will be “put to bed quickly”. That night, all twenty children were killed by hanging in the basement of the Bullenhuser Schule.

On April 20, 1945, the British were less than three miles from the camp

“I don’t think that camp inmates are worth the same as people,” said 61-year-old Kurt Heissmeyer on June 21, 1966. “Why didn’t you use laboratory animals?” is the question he is asked. “Because there is no difference between laboratory animals and humans”, replies Heissmeyer. He then corrected himself: “Between laboratory animals and Jews”

Heissmeyer died on 29 August 1967.

sources

http://www.philips-kommando.nl/blauw_persoon15.html

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/artikel/de-broertjes-hornemann-medische-experimenten-nazi-kampen

http://www.kinder-vom-bullenhuser-damm.de/_english/eduard_und_alexander_hornemann.php

https://www.museumoftolerance.com/education/teacher-resources/holocaust-resources/children-of-the-holocaust/alexander-hornemann.html

The destruction of innocence and beauty.

The girl in the play penis Renee Sara Gottschalk, born in the Central Refugee Camp Westerbork on 21 June 1941. The two girls in the dark dresses are the daughters of chief physician F. Spanier. The lady on the right is Rosa Strauss; Renee Sara’s mother. Her father is
Erich Gottschalk. Renee and her mother Rosa were killed in Auschwitz on 6 October 1944. Father Erich survived the war.

Rosa Strauss was born on February 24, 1911 in Bochum. Her parents were Emil Strauss and Johanna Strauss-Mendels. Her father was a cattle dealer and butcher. On February 5, 1937, Rosa married Erich Gottschalk, 5 years her senior in Bochum.

Shortly after the wedding, Rosa’s family fled to England via the Netherlands. From there they fled to South Africa. Rosa and Erich did not want to be chased out of Germany.

Erich was trained as a textile merchant, but under pressure from the Nazi measures, he was forced to work in his parents’ company, a wholesaler of advertising materials. The place was completely destroyed during the Kristallnacht. The next day he was arrested and taken to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp. Rosa was left alone. Because Rosa could prove that they had plans to emigrate, Erich was released on December 11, 1938.

Rosa and her husband fled to the Netherlands, where they ended up in a relief camp in Hoek van Holland. They planned to flee further, but were overtaken by the German invasion in May 1940. Rosa and Erich were taken to the Westerbork refugee camp. Their daughter Renée was born there on June 21, 1941. Because they were already in the camp during the refugee period, they were not put on transport for the time being.

They were ‘Alte Lagerinsassen’ but on September 4, 1944, Rosa, Erich and Renée Gottschalk were sent to Theresienstadt on transport. They only stayed there for a month. A month later, the family was sent to Auschwitz from Theresienstadt. Rosa and Renée were murdered here immediately after arrival, on October 6, 1944. Erich was chosen to work.

He survived the outside command Tschechowitz. Just before the liberation, he was sent on the death march ahead of the advancing Russian army. Erich Gottschalk was weak and collapsed, but was helped by Polish peasants. On 6 June 1945 he returned to Amsterdam as the only survivor of his family. His beautiful wife was murdered age 33. His beautiful and innocent daughter was murdered age 3.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/591473/rosa-gottschalk-strauss

The murder of Joseph Hartog van der Horst

The most beautiful announcement any parent can make, is the announcement of the birth of a child.

Mary Louise van der Horst-Beerenborg and Abraham Arthur van der Horst. must have been so proud when they put a notification in the Jewish weeklu(Het Joodsche Weekblad) on September 4.1942 that their son Hartog was born on August 29,1942 in the Hague, the Netherlands.

But from conception to death took only 18 months for Hartog. He was murdered aged 9 months, on June 7,1943 in Westerbork.

All that is recorded of Hartog is the newspaper notification and the notification of his death.

Both his parents were murdered just over a month later on July 16,1943 in Sobibor.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/29524/joseph-hartog-van-der-horst

https://www.openarch.nl/dar:4c101509-0655-488f-8d5c-cd9709b04774

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Joseph-Hartog-van-der-Horst/01/49889

Sally van Dijk,8 year old boy Murdered on May 28-1943,Sobibor.

Sally was born on August 19, 1934 in Geffen, the Netherlands. I wish I could say more about Sally, but there is very little known about him. The fact that he was murdered on May 28,1943 in Sobibor is sad, What makes it even sadder, his father, mother and older sister were murdered the same day, in the same place.

In fact in total 2849 Dutch Jews were murdered that day in Sobibor. They had all been transported from Westerbork.

Sally’s short life already had been interrupted. From September 1, 1941, Jewish children had to go to separate schools and were no longer allowed to go to public schools.

The Mandatory Star of David was introduced from May 3, 1942 and obliged all Jews older than six years to wear the Star of David. It had to be worn visibly at chest height. The star was distributed by the Jewish Council and cost 4 cents each.

I don’t know when Sally and his family were forced to go there, but until 25 May 1943 Sally van Dijk was imprisoned in Camp Westerbork.

Only 3 days later, Sally and 2848 others were murdered in Sobibor.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/33516/sally-van-dijk

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Sally-van-Dijk/01/436

Two sides of the Holocaust-Innocence and Evil.

May 16 is a date which links two events in relation to the Holocaust, even though they are 15 years apart.

Hana Bradyová was born on 16 May 1931 in Prague, the daughter of Markéta (née Dubsky) and Karel Bradyová. Her family lived in Nové Město na Moravě in the Vysočina Region of Czechoslovakia.

Most people will know Hana Bradyová as Hana Brady, her story was brought to light in the book “Hana’s Suitcase” by Karen Levine.

Hana was described as a happy, active and athletic little girl who was very close to her family. Hana was just eight years old when the Nazis occupied Czechoslovakia. The family’s life became restricted, and they were forced to hand over their radio and other valuables to the Nazis. Their Christian friends stopped playing with Hana and her brother George(Jiří ) , because their parents feared they would be punished for playing with Jewish children. Hana and George remained close and supported one another during this time.

In March 1941, their mother, Marketa, was assigned to a Nazi transport and taken away. Soon after, they were forced to sew yellow star badges to their clothing along with all the other Czech Jews. When one man in town refused to comply, a Nazi officer was furious and ordered the arrests of all the other Jewish men in town. Hana and George’s father Karel was arrested and taken away a few days later, and the two children were left with the family’s housekeeper.

In 1942 Hana and George were sent to the Theresienstadt concentration camp. Hana was assigned to the girls’ home in barrack L410.In 1944, Hana was deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp. While her brother survived by working as a laborer, Hana was sent to the gas chambers a few hours after her arrival on 23 October 1944, she was murdered aged 13. Her body was cremated with other victims in the ovens at the crematorium.

Bruno Tesch

15 years after Hana’s birth Bruno Tesch and Karl Weinbacher were executed, on May 16,1946.

Karl Weinbacher worked at Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung, which translates as German Corporation for Pest Control) until 1924, and then at Tesch & Stabenow (Testa, for short), where he received the position of manager in 1927, and by 1943 was director and deputy executive under owner and chief executive officer Bruno Tesch. Testa manufactured and sold Zyklon B, which was used control in the gas chambers of Auschwitz to murder people, including Hana Brady. Weinbacher received royalties on sales of Zyklon B.

Bruno Emil Tesch (14 August 1890 – 16 May 1946) was a German chemist and entrepreneur. Together with Gerhard Peters and Walter Heerdt, he invented Zyklon B, He was the owner of Tesch & Stabenow (called Testa), a pest control company he co-founded in 1924 with Paul Stabenow in Hamburg, Germany, which was a major supplier of Zyklon B to the Nazi concentration camps.

Below is the transcript of a statement at the trial of Bruno Tesch.

By

Dr. Bruno TESCH

Dr. Bruno TESCH, having been duly sworn, states:–

My name is Dr. Bruno TESCH, born on 14th August 1890, in Berlin, and living at HAMBURG-BLANKENESE, Wittspark 14.

In 1924 I founded, together with Mr. STABENOW, the firm of TESCH & STABENOW, which, since 1927, has been under the direction of the Deutsche Gasellschaft für Schaedlingsbekaempfung. Our firm had the sole right to supply Cyan-Gas in the form of Zyklon B to the country east of the ELBE. On the foundation of the firm I held thirty-three and a third percent of the shares; in 1927, some time before the alleged suicide of my colleague, STABENOW, I acquired another eleven and two-thirds percent, so that my share was forty-five percent. In 1942 I acquired the remaining fifty-five percent and was therefore sole proprietor of the firm.

In 1933 I joined the NSDAP and in the same year became a supporting member of the SS.

Since 1927 Mr WEINBACHER was the Prokurist of the firm. All incoming orders went through his hands, and in my absence, approximately two hundred days a year, he took over the managament [sic] of the firm. Dr. Joachimhans DROSIHN was the biological adviser of the firm. He, too, was travelling most of the time. Mr. ZAUN was the head book-keeper. Mr. SEHM was a book-keeper. He had no reason to wish me ill; on the contrary he should be thankful as I once helped him in a situation.

I kept no ‘black book’ in which I recorded the misdeeds of my employees. Neither did I keep a sealed envelope about Dr. DROSIHN.

I wrote very exact travel reports about my journeys, which on my return I divided evenly over my secretaries for typing. My private secretary was Miss RATOKE; but also Mrs. UENZELMANN and Miss BIAGINI and the others wrote my reports.

I was never told in BERLIN at a conference, or by any other source, that Zyklon B gas should be used against human beings. I mentioned this fact in none of my travel reports and I have never spread no[r] heard such a rumour in my office.

Except Zyklon gas, my firm also supplied circulation plant for gas chambers of 10 cbm size. Chambers of the capacity of more than 50 cbm are not known to me, and therefore I did not know that the SS was our best customer. I also know nothing of the huge deliveries which we made to AUSCHWITZ in the years 1942-43. Since 1943 all orders of state customers went through the Haupt-sanitaetspark, BERLIN. Our firm never supplied the Wirtschafts-Verwaltungs Hauptaert (WVHA) either directly or indirectly. My accounts books were checked by Dr. PLINKER and I only know the yearly and monthly general balance.

SUMMARY PRODUCTION No. 10

Of sales of ZYKLON B to Concentration Camps during 1942 and 1943, extracted from Exhibits HG and HH.

KZ Camp 1942 1943
DATE Kg RM DATE Kg RM
AUSCHWITZ 6 Feb 480.0 3,038.0 13 Jan 1,004.4 6026.0
9 Mar 516.0 3,266.0 19 Jan 1,026.0 6156.0
3 Jun 50 317.0 29 Jan 999.0 5,994.0
3 Aug 495.0 3,133.0 24 Mar 999.0 5,994.0
6 Aug 1,756.8 11,120.0 10 Mar 999.0 5,994.0
31 Aug 1,008.0 6,381.0 22 Mar 999.0 5,994.0
8 Sep 504.0 3,190.0 29 Mar 1,018.0 6,108.0
8 Oct 489.6 3,099.0 31 Jul 216.0 1,231.0
8 Oct 489.6 3,099.0 30 Apr 1,018.0 6,108.0
28 Oct 1,497.6 9,480.0 17 Aug 810.0 4,617.0
9 Dec 192.0 1,152.0 30 Aug 972.0 5,540.0
7,478.6 44,575.0 14 Sep 999.0 5,694.0
30 Nov 999.0 5,694.0
31 Dec 116.5 699.0
12,174.9 71,849.0
SACHSEN-HAUSEN 10 Feb 72.0 456.0 22 Jan 192.0 1,152.0
25 Mar 96.0 608.0 5 Feb 192.0 1,152.0
24 Apr 96.0 608.0 26 Feb 288.0 1,728.0
15 Jun 96.0 608.0 8 Mar 288.0 1,728.0
18 Jul 96.0 608.0 17 Feb 192.0 1,152.0
13 Aug 96.0 608.0 18 Mar 288.0 1,728.0
31 Aug 96.0 608.0 6 Apr 288.0 1,728.0
28 Sep 96.0 608.0 6 Jul 288.0 1,641.0
28 Oct 96.0 608.0 31 Aug 288.0 1,641.0
6 Nov 96.0 576.0 28 Sep 288.0 1,641.0
26 Nov 192.0 1,152.0 17 Dec 288.0 1,641.0
15 Dec 192.0 1,152.0 31 Dec 33.6 201.0
23 May 118.0 683.0 2913.6 17,133.0
1,438.0 8,883.0
NEUEN- GAMME 3 Mar 24.0 152.0 21 Jan 60.0 360.0
9 Jun 12.0 76.0 29 Jan 60.0 360.0
14 Aug 12.0 76.0 17 Feb 60.0 360.0
9 Sep 36.0 228.0 10 Mar 60.0 360.0
9 Nov 36.0 216.0 10 Jun 60.0 342.0
18 Dec 60.0 360.0 30 Aug 60.0 342.0
180.0 1,108.0 19 Oct 60.0 342.0
31 Dec 7.0 42.0
427.0 2,508.0
GROSS-ROSEN NIL 8 Jan 60.0 360.0
27 Feb 120.0 720.0
8 Jun 124.5 710.0
17 Sep 125.0 713.0
429.5 2503.0
LUBLIN nil 19 Jul 513.0 2,924.0
14 Sep 999.0 5,694.0
31 Dec 115.5 693.0
1,627.5 9,311.0
Signed A. ZAUN.
PRODUCTION No. 10

KZ Camp 1942 1943
DATE Kg RM DATE Kg RM
RAVENSBRUCK NIL 19 Apr 114.0 684.0
10 Jun 114.0 650.0
15 Sep 90.0 313.0
19 Oct 30.0 171.0
31 Dec 3.5 21.0
351.5 2039.0

(Signed) Alfred ZAUN

Hamburg, the 26th of October 1945

Sworn before me Capt. R.A. Nightingale Int. Corps of No. 2 War Crimes Investigation Team this twenty-eighth day of October 1945.

(Signed) R.A. Nightingale

Capt

sources

https://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/holocaust/trial-bruno-tesch/

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/inside-house-zyklon-b-180965184/

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Remembering Elisabeth Huisman-Lees

The 4th of May is the date when all deaths from World War 2( and the last few years also from other conflicts) are remembered. At 8pm a 2 minutes silence is observed nationwide.

There were 7,900 military death, 198,000 civilian deaths, of which 20,000 died between late September 1944 and early May 1945 due to famine. But I will be remembering one victim of the estimated 104,000, Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust.

Elisabeth Huisman-Lees was born on August 17,1908 in The Hague, Netherlands. She died on May 4,1945 ,one day before the Netherlands was officially liberated, in Tröbitz, Germany.

Like most of the Dutch Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust, Elisabeth was Jewish but above anything else she was Dutch. She even played ‘Korfbal’ which is a typical Dutch sport.It has similarities to netball and basketball, and is played by two teams of eight players with four female players and four male players in each team. The objective is to throw a ball into a netless basket that is mounted on a 3.5 m (11.5 feet) high pole.

Elisabeth is on the right in the middle row

On February 1,1944 Elisabeth was sent from Westerbork to Bergen Belsen. From there she was put on the so called ‘Lost Train: Bergen-Belsen to Tröbitz’.

On April 10, 1945 a transport carrying Jews left Bergen-Belsen with an intended destination of Theresienstadt. However, due to bombings, the train ended up in the German town called Tröbitz.

In early April 1945, prisoners from Bergen-Belsen concentration camp were transferred to Theresienstadt concentration camp.

One of the three trains used for this was liberated by the Russian army near the village of Tröbitz. Many passengers did not survive this train journey. A large number of those who survived the train journey have died as a result of the outbreak of the typhus epidemic. The deceased were buried in a common grave behind the management barracks of the “Hansa” quarry.

211 died on that transport in Tröbitz. The really sad thing is that they all died just before or after the end of the war. Some died in June 1945. The youngest was Raphael Dasberg. He was only 8 years old, he died on April 22,1945.

If I would have to be silent for 2 minutes for each individual Dutch world war 2 victim, I would have to be silent for just over 300 days.

If I would have to remain silent for 2 minutes for each individual Jewish Holocaust victim, I would have to stay silent for 8,3344 days or 22.8 years. 10 years longer then the duration of the Holocaust.

Just think of that for a second.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/149380/elisabeth-huisman-lees

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/135297/raphael-dasberg

https://www.ancestry.com/search/collections/60772/

http://www.musiques-regenerees.fr/GhettosCamps/Camps/TheLostTrain_Bergen-BelsenToTroebitz.html

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Elisabeth-Huisman-Lees/01/31022

Donation

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Only a death certificate to remember her by

All stories of children who were murdered during the Holocaust are extremely sad, but even in that there are different levels.

The story of Helga Renate Sara Zons is particularly heartbreaking . There are no pictures of her just a death certificate to remember her by, The certificate was even issued 10 years after she was murdered.

What make it really sad is the fact that she would be 79 today, she could still have a few decades left to live. But she never really had a life to begin with, she was born on April 26,1941. Her place of birth was Westerbork transit camp, she was born in captivity.

Sara only had 2 journeys in her short life. The first one was to Theresienstadt on September 4,1944.Her second and her last journey was to Auschwitz where she was murdered upon arrival on October 6,1944, she was only 3 years old.

A life never fulfilled.

Rest in peace little angel.

Sources

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Helga-Renate-Sara-Zons/01/97835

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/217307/helga-renate-sara-zons

The murder of Beatrix Romijn and her family.

Every time when I look at a picture of a young Holocaust victim, I get this uncomfortable feeling, and even feel physically unwell. But that is a miniscule price to pay to ensure that they are remembered, not as just a number or statistic, but as a human being. Made from flesh and blood, a product of love.

Beatrix Romijn was such a human being. Born in Amsterdam, on the 19th of April 1941.Murdered in Auschwitz on the 2nd of August 1942. She reached the age of 1 years.

She hardly ever experienced what it felt like to play with a toy. She never got to do that typical Dutch thing of riding a bike.

On July 31, 1943 she was deported to Auschwitz together with her parents. In total there were 1002 human beings on that transport. 54% male,46% female.

I don’t know if this is true but I believe it is safe to presume that Beatrix was named after the Dutch Crown Princess at the time .

Beatrix and her Mother, Bertha Romijn-Kool, were murdered on August 2nd 1942 in Auschwitz. 194 Dutch Jews were murdered that day in Auschwitz.

Bertha Romijn-Kool, born in Amsterdam, on the 16th of November 1913. Murdered in Auschwitz, on the 2nd of August 1942. Reached the age of 28 years.

Beatrix’s Father ,Philip Romijn, born in Amsterdam, on the 29th of December 1912. Murdered in Auschwitz, on the 22nd of September 1942. Reached the age of 29 years, occupation: Diamond worker.

May they be remembered forever.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/183196/beatrix-romijn

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Beatrix-Romijn/01/2518

The murder of Robert Bierman in Auschwitz

Robert Bierman was murdered on July 18, 1942 in Auschwitz, he was 4 years old. I could have done a piece on his sister ,Francisca, who was also murdered on July 18, 1942. She was aged 6.

The reason why I picked Robert because it is his birthday today. He was born in Amsterdam on April 13,1938. He would have been 88 today.

I probably could have found out more about Robert, but I have reached a point where my heart just no longer can take it, He was perceived by the Nazis as an enemy of the state. Below are just some pictures of this 4 year old enemy of the state.

With his sister Francisca and mother Marianne Bierman-Trijbetz.

With his big sister Francisca, who is skillfully driving him around the garden.

Brother and sister relaxing in the sun.

A proud father ,Herman Eduard Bierman, and his daughter Francisca and infant baby boy Robert, their lives were still safe when that picture was taken,

Herman Eduard Bierman was murdered on August 1,1942 in Auschwitz.

Marianne Bierman-Trijbetz was murdered on the same date as her children, July 18,1942.

For some reason this one had a greater impact on me than others. Perhaps it is because I could have been Robert if I had been born 30 years earlier .

source

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/196421/robert-bierman

The murder of Jacob Hartog Morpurgo on April 7-1944

Jacob was born on October 19,1934 in Amsterdam. He was the youngest child and only son of Rachel Morpurgo-Kijl and Abraham Morpurgo. He had 2 siblings, sisters Carla Celina Morpurgo and Vogelina Morpurgo.

This family was just a regular family, the Father Abraham, was a draper by trade. Mother Rachel is what they call nowadays a stay at home mum, or home maker.

On May 9,1941 Jacob was issued with a passport, which was valid for 2 years, until May 9,1943.

I don’t know the exact date but at some stage Jacob and his family traveled to Belgium. This must have been after his passport had expired. But that would not have mattered because he didn’t ravel there for his holidays. The Morpurgo family was send to the transit camp Mechelen in Belgium. The last day they were there was April 3,1944, because the following day they were all deported to Auschwitz on transport 24. Jacob, his mother and two sisters were murdered upon arrival on April 7,1944.

Abraham was deported to Mauthausen at some point, where he was murdered on February 1,1945. He reached the age of 43. There is a tradition in the Netherlands when a man reaches the age of 50, they say he has seen Abraham. This Abraham never got to celebrate that birthday.

Rachel Morpurgo-Kijl. born in Amsterdam, 21 July 1895. Murdered in Auschwitz, 7 April 1944. Reached the age of 48 years

Vogelina Morpurgo , Born in Amsterdam, 19 February 1925.Murdered in Auschwitz, 7 April 1944.Reached the age of 19 years.

Carla Celina Morpurgo, born in Amsterdam, 4 November 1930.Murdered in Auschwitz, 7 April 1944.Reached the age of 13 years. She had been a student at the Joods Lyceum in Amsterdam.

Vogeltje Morpurgo-van Engel, was the Mother of Abrham, and the Grandmother of Jacob,Vogelina and Carla. She was also on the same transport from Mechelen to Auschwitz and was murdered also on April 7,1944. She reached the age of 68. Her name means little bird.

On April 7,194, thirteen Dutch Jewish citizens were murdered in Auschwitz. Sic were from the same family.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/530060/about-jacob-hartog-morpurgo

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Jacob-Hartog-Morpurgo/02/106333

https://archief.amsterdam/indexen/deeds/fe69ebd2-1ba4-45cf-95df-2522dbd4aa06

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

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