Jacques Swaluw-murdered aged 10 months.

The title is about Jacques Swaluw but it really is about just more then Jacques.

Jacques was born in Rotterdam on the 19th of June 1942.

Esther Swaluw was a daughter of Isaäc Swaluw and Maria Melkman. 2 December 1913 she married Izak van Been in Rotterdam, a son of Abraham van Been and Sientje Bacharach. Esther and Izak however divorced, which was registered in the Civil Registry of Rotterdam 13 June 1936. Together, they had a son Abraham who after the divorce grew up in the family of Izak van Been and his 2nd wife Hanna Boeki.

After her divorce, Esther had three more children: 16 June 1936 her daughter Maria was born. Her possible father was Izak van Been, however no name of a father was registered. But she was “a Jewish child” according a note at the registration card of her mother, made out by the Jewish Council of Rotterdam.

Esther had a relationship with the non-Jewish Jan Houtkamp in Rotterdam, from whom she had a son who was born 17 September 1940 and his name was John Houtkamp. According the registration card of Esther Swaluw, Jan Houtkamp acknowledged John as his at 2 December 1940, being the father of this child. Whether there was a formal marriage or not, could not be researched.

19 June 1942 Esther had another child, named Jacques. He received the family name of Swaluw so it is not clear who Jacques father was. At Esther’s registration per 1 October 1941 by the Jewish Council, her civil status was listed as “divorced”. Also a note made in April 1943 by the Jewish Council reveals that the 3rd child (Jacques) has not been acknowledged by Jan Houtman.

One of the many notes made at Esthers registration card of the Jewish Council is an attempt of 2 April 1943 by Esther Swaluw, to safeguard her children from deportation, where Esther has mentioned that her children Jacques and John were non-Jewish, while Maria Swaluw was Jewish. The note of 9 April 1943 is perhaps the most prominent, whereby “the person concerned (Esther Swaluw) 8 April has made a request that her children Jacques and John are G 1”. (G 1 – Mischiling Ersten Grades / half breed first degree). However, all attempts were in vain.

Her daughter Maria Swaluw was deported to Camp Westerbork already on 26 February 1943 and stayed in barack 84. Her mother Esther Swaluw and her children John Houtkamp and Jacques Swaluw were registered together in Westerbork 31 March 1943 and they stayed in barack 70. 4 May 1943 they were all put on transport to Sobibor and upon arrival there 7 May 1943 immediately killed.

source

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/124551/jacques-swaluw

The murder of Samuel Juda Vredenburg

It is an old Dutch tradition that you send a little card to friends and neighbours, to announce the birth of a baby. As did Izak Vredenburg and Ganna Vredenburg-Hirsch. They must have been delighted to announce the birth of their baby boy Samuel Juda Vredenburg. He was born in Amsterdam, on 24 July 1942.

Poor little Samuel didn’t even get to celebrate his first birthday. He was murdered on June 14,1943 in Westerbork. He would not even be 80 yet today.

Although Westerbork was a transit camp,which meant that most would only stay a short term before transported to other camps, predominatly Auschwitz and Sobibor. There were still at least 772 people who died or rather were murdered in Westerbork.

None of Samuel’s family survived.

Raphael Salomon Vredenburg, born in Amsterdam, 11 June 1941.Murdered in Sobibor, on23 July 1943.Reached the age of 2.

Jacob Menachem Vredenburg, born in Amsterdam, 20 July 1939.Murdered in Sobibor, on 23 July 1943.Reached the age of 4

Simon Azaria Vredenburg, born in Amsterdam, 14 April 1938.Murdered in Sobibor, on 23 July 1943.Reached the age of 5

Judith Julie Vredenburg, born in Amsterdam, 17 July 1936.Murdered in Sobibor, on 23 July 1943.Reached the age of 7.

Both parents, Izak Vredenburg and Ganna Vredenburg-Hirsch, were also murdered in Sobibor on 23 July 1943.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/183523/izak-vredenburg

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Samuel-Juda-Vredenburg/02/163505

Holocaust in the Netherlands.

During World War II, Jewish citizens in the Netherlands were isolated and subjected to discrimination and persecution by the National Socialists and their associates. Most of them did not survive the war. More than 102,000 Jews from the Netherlands were deported and murdered during the Holocaust.

One of the most compelling pieces of evidence to have survived from this period are photographs of the victims.

By the summer of 1943 most of the Jews in the Netherlands had been deported. By the time the last transport left in September 1944 a total of 107,000 Jews had been deported to the extermination camps. Only 5,000 of them returned after the war. More than 75% of Dutch Jews were murdered during the Holocaust. This was the highest amount, per capita, in all of the occupied countries.

The large number and percentage of Jewish victims in the Netherlands compared with for example, Belgium and France, can be explained in the first place by the fact that in the Netherlands, the German run police had sole authority over the organization and execution of the deportations, independently of the occupying regime and the local authorities. This applied to a lesser extent in Belgium and not at all for France. The Dutch civil service also kept immaculate records of all citizens.

However in recent years there has been a greater awareness of the mistakes made during the war and the inaction of many civil servants. Compared to some eastern European countries, the Dutch government is at least trying to own up to its mistakes rather then trying to revise history.

The picture at the top of the blog is of Nehemia Levy Cohen. Born in Amsterdam on 20 December, 1940. Deported to Westerbork on January 25.1943.Transported to Sobibor on 4 May 1943. where he was murdered 3 days later on May 7,1943, aged 2.

Following are just some pictures of a few of the 107,000 Jews who were sent to the concentration camps. Most of them never returned.

They were just ordinary citizens who never harmed anyone.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/191815/nehemia-levy-cohen

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/bronnen?term=Nehemia+Cohen+

https://www.annefrank.org/en/anne-frank/go-in-depth/netherlands-greatest-number-jewish-victims-western-europe/

https://www.yadvashem.org/righteous/stories/netherlands-historical-background.html

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

The murder of Joseph Hartog van der Horst

The most beautiful announcement any parent can make, is the announcement of the birth of a child.

Mary Louise van der Horst-Beerenborg and Abraham Arthur van der Horst. must have been so proud when they put a notification in the Jewish weeklu(Het Joodsche Weekblad) on September 4.1942 that their son Hartog was born on August 29,1942 in the Hague, the Netherlands.

But from conception to death took only 18 months for Hartog. He was murdered aged 9 months, on June 7,1943 in Westerbork.

All that is recorded of Hartog is the newspaper notification and the notification of his death.

Both his parents were murdered just over a month later on July 16,1943 in Sobibor.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/29524/joseph-hartog-van-der-horst

https://www.openarch.nl/dar:4c101509-0655-488f-8d5c-cd9709b04774

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Joseph-Hartog-van-der-Horst/01/49889

Sally van Dijk,8 year old boy Murdered on May 28-1943,Sobibor.

Sally was born on August 19, 1934 in Geffen, the Netherlands. I wish I could say more about Sally, but there is very little known about him. The fact that he was murdered on May 28,1943 in Sobibor is sad, What makes it even sadder, his father, mother and older sister were murdered the same day, in the same place.

In fact in total 2849 Dutch Jews were murdered that day in Sobibor. They had all been transported from Westerbork.

Sally’s short life already had been interrupted. From September 1, 1941, Jewish children had to go to separate schools and were no longer allowed to go to public schools.

The Mandatory Star of David was introduced from May 3, 1942 and obliged all Jews older than six years to wear the Star of David. It had to be worn visibly at chest height. The star was distributed by the Jewish Council and cost 4 cents each.

I don’t know when Sally and his family were forced to go there, but until 25 May 1943 Sally van Dijk was imprisoned in Camp Westerbork.

Only 3 days later, Sally and 2848 others were murdered in Sobibor.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/33516/sally-van-dijk

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Sally-van-Dijk/01/436

Love in the Holocaust

I am always amazed and in awe of people, who despite awful conditions and a very uncertain and bleak future, were still determined to not let that destroy their love for each other. Although they knew the marriage probably wouldn’t last long they still decided to get married.

The picture is a wedding picture of Leendert Vischschraper and Mietje Zendijk. They got married on 12 August 1942 in Amsterdam.

Leendert was murdered in Auschwitz on May31,1944. Mietje was murdered in Bergen Belsen on March 15,1945.

The above picture was taken on the 7th of June 1942. I don’t know who the married couple are, or what their fate was , but more then likely they were also murdered. It could be a weeding picture of Abraham (Jim) de Zwarte and Roza Wertheim, but I am not sure.

Salomon Schrijver married Flora Mendels on 16 April 1942 in Amsterdam. Salomon and Flora deported to Sobibor and murdered on July 9th, 1943.

Abraham (Jim) de Zwarte married Roza Wertheim on 7 June 1942 in the New Synagogue in Amsterdam. A film was made of their wedding , which now is in the Jewish Historical Museum.

The day started in Amsterdam South, in the Waverstraat, where the groom and his family leave for the Transvaalkade in East and then to the Retiefstraat (East). Here, in Jim’s house, the bride is picked up. The wedding will be held in the New Synagogue on Jonas Daniel Meijerplein. A title card with the text ‘star parade’ refers to the obligatory wearing of the Star of David when leaving the synagogue (since 1 May 1942).

Fur worker Abraham aka Jim de Zwarte was born on 13-10-1916 in Amsterdam and murdered in Auschwitz on 28-2-1943, at the age of 26. Seamstress Rosa (or Roza) de Zwarte-Wertheim was born on 13-3-1920 in Amsterdam and murdered in Auschwitz on 15-12-1942, at the age of 22, six months after her marriage.

Below is the link of the film of the wedding day.

https://beeldbankwo2.nl/nl/beelden/detail/7a9d9fd4-e4ff-ff3e-eba4-7e4a90209055/media/3b794541-530f-eaff-1df1-133d538b3425

These were just a few of those brave people, defying hate to seal their love.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/531767/about-abraham-de-zwarte

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/202672/leendert-vischschraper

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

The Rooselaar Family-Murdered April 2.1943 in Sobibor.

I wish I could tell you a long story about the Rooselaar family, but I can’t. However the few things I do know I will tell you because it is a chilling tale of evil and destruction.

The Rooselaar family lived in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. They were moved or rather deported to Westerbork at some stage. I know this because on March 30th 1943 the whole family were put on transport from Westerbork to Sobibor. They arrived in Sobibor on April 2nd 1943, where they were all murdered upon arrival.

The family were:

Father -Hartog Rooselaar born in Amsterdam, on 23 July 1900.Reached the age of 42 years, occupation: Furniture maker.

Mother -Anna Rooselaar-Presser born in Amsterdam, 3 July 1904.Reached the age of 38 years

Son-Salomon Rooselaar born in Amsterdam, 14 September 1930.Reached the age of 12 years.

Son-Barend Rooselaar born in Amsterdam, 30 June 1932. Reached the age of 10 years.

Daughter-Estella Rooselaar born in Amsterdam, 9 July 1936. Reached the age of 6 years.

Son-Eduard Rooselaar born in Amsterdam, 6 October 1938.Reached the age of 4 years.

All 6 members of the Rooselaar family were put on the March 3rd 1943 transport to Sobibor, but they weren’t the only ones. In total there were 1246 people who were on that transport.

On April 2nd 1943,1252 Dutch Jews were murdered in Sobibor. 113 were 18 years or younger. Among them were, Jacob de Vries born in The Hague on April 13.1941. He was 11 days away from his 2nd birthday when he was murdered.

Isidore Kiek born in Hilversum, 17 February 1932 .Reached the age of 11 years.

The oldest of those 133 children would have been 97 today. This means they all could have been still alive on April 2,2022.

On October 14, 1943, some 300 Jewish labourers at the camp rose in revolt and killed several SS supervisors and Ukrainian guards. Many inmates were killed during the rebellion or in the attempt to escape. All who remained were executed the following day. The Nazis dismantled the installations and planted the area with trees. Only about 50 Sobibor prisoners ultimately survived the war.

Imagine if the camp had remained open until the end of the war? More then 34,000 Dutch Jews were murdered in Sobibor which closed in November 1943. It had only be operational for just over 18 months.

Just over 56,000 Dutch Jews were murdered in Auschwitz ,which closed in January 1945.

sources

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Salomon-Rooselaar/01/65178

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/158373/hartog-rooselaar

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

Donald Davids Murdered innocence

I always try to keep my emotions out of it when I write about the Holocaust, but I often fail. How could I not get emotional when I see a picture of a baby who was murdered.

Donald was born in Amsterdam, on 30 March 1941 .He was murdered in Sobibor, on 11 June 1943., aged 2.

His Father was Meindert Davids and his Mother was Alida Davids-Hoost.

Meindert Davids was born on 23 April 1911 in Rotterdam .He was the son of David Davids and Betje Godschalk. Meindert married Alida Hoost, on 3 July 1940 in Aamsterdam.Alida was born on 1 December 1917 in Amsterdam. She was the daughter of Godschalk Hoost and Leentje Beugeltas. The couple had one child, their pride and Joy Donald, who was born on 30 March 1941 in Amsterdam.

On 17 February 1943, Meindert, Alida and their baby boy Donald were deported from their house on the Waverstraat to concentration camp Vught. From the registration card of the Jewish Council archive of Meindert Davids, it shows that he has been transferred on 21 May 1943 from Vught to the Moerdijk Command, a satellite command of Vught, and subsequently to to Vught and then to Westerbork where he steyd in barrack 62. On 21 September Meindert was put on transport to Auschwitz.

Where he was immediately murdered in the gas chambers of Auschwitz-Birkenau, upon arrival on September 24,1943

Little Donald and his Mother were sent to Westerbork on the 7th of June 1943.

Donald Davids was deported to Sobibor, together with his mother on the 8th June 1943 with the so-called children’s transport.

There were about 3000 people on that transport. Below is the breakdown of the age groups.

Off the 3000 people, 2743 are murdered in Sobibor. 17 Others are murdered elsewhere

Donald Davids is murdered on June 11.1943 He reached the age of 2 years. Another 3000+ Dutch Jews were murdered in Sobibor that day.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/156499/donald-davids

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Donald-Davids/01/3831

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Donald-Davids/01/3831

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

The murder of Sophie van Tijn

Sophie is the girl on the left in the above picture. It would have been her 90th birthday today. She was born on March 16, 1932 in Amersfoort. She was transferred via Kamp Vught to Camp Westerbork on 23 May 1943. There were another 1172 people on that transport. 1171 Jewish Dutch citizens and one other, possibly a Roma or resistance fighter.

This is the age breakdown of that transport.

From Westerbork,Sophie and her family were deported to Sobibor on 8 June 1943 – with transport number 68. It was transport 68 from Westerbork but it was Transport 15 to Sobibor.
On June 8, 1943, the 15th train left from Westerbork to Sobibor. On this train, there were 3017 persons. It was the train of the notorious Children’s Transport. The lives of all 3017 men, women and children aboard this 15th transport, ended in Sobibor on the 11th of June, 1943. Sophie and her family included.

Sophie’s oldest sister was murdered on May 23.1943 in Sobibor. This was the same day when Sophie, her mother and the other siblings were sent to Westerbork from Vught.

Sophie’s Father ,Samuel, a coachman ,died on March 16,1942 at home after a short illness. He died on Sophie’s 10th birthday, 80 years ago today.

Her siblings:

Sister;Esther Reintje van Tijn-born in Amersfoort, 18 May 1926. Murdered in Sobibor, 28 May 1943. Reached the age of 17 years.

Sister; Isa van Tijn-Born in Amersfoort, 26 June 1929. Murdered in–Sobibor, 11 June 1943.Reached the age of 13 years.

Sister; Reintje van Tijn-Born in Amersfoort, 10 March 1928. Murdered in Sobibor, 11 June 1943. Reached the age of 15 years.

Brother: Izak van Tijn-Born in Amersfoort, 1 November 1930. Murdered in Sobibor, 11 June 1943. Reached the age of 12 years

Brother; Benjamin van Tijn-Born in Amersfoort, 10 February 1937.Murdered in Sobibor, 11 June 1943.Reached the age of 6 years.

Brother; Salomon van Tijn-Born in Amersfoort, 13 September 1941.Murdered in Sobibor, 11 June 1943.Reached the age of 1 year.

Mother;Roosje van Tijn-Gompers-Born in Gouda, 27 March 1905. Murdered in Sobibor, 11 June 1943. Occupation: Shop assistant. Reached the age of 38 years

All these murders are absolutely heartbreaking. It is only because it is Sophie’s birthday today I mentioned her in the title, but I could have put any of their names in the title.

It was only on May 17,1950 when Sophie’s death was officially registered.

a whole family wiped out, the most of them on one day, just because of some warped ideology.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/197033/sophie-van-tijn

https://www.sobibor.org/en/the-nineteen-transports/

https://www.openarch.nl/hua:FA6A1840-6B8C-4564-9A11-E0DF575D084E

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Sophie-van-Tijn/01/1827?lang=nl

Murdered in Westerbork March 15 1943.

Although Westerbork wasn’t an extermination camp but transit camp, it didn’t mean that no one was murdered there. It is often referred to as a ‘humane’ camp, but there was nothing humane about it.

Only 751 people were murdered there, now some will say that some died and were not murdered, but I don’t subscribe to that point of view. Everyone who died in the camps was murdered, they should never have been there in the first place and all camps had sub standard and appalling living condition. It is a wonder that not more died.

The low mortality rate in Westerbork is mainly due to the relatively short period of time that most prisoners would stay in Westerbork, before they were transported to Auschwitz,Sobibor or Treblinka and a few other camps.

Westerbork was originally established in 1939 by the Dutch before the German invasion of the Netherlands. It began as a refugee camp for German Jewish refugees who had fled Nazi persecution.

Until 1942, when it became a transit camp from which Jews, Roma and Sinti were deported to Nazi extermination and concentration camps in Germany and occupied territories of Central and Eastern Europe..

These are just a few names of the 751 who were murdered in Westerbork. They were all murdered on March 15,1943.

Jacques Jacob Arend-Born in Rotterdam, 11 March 1908.Occupation Draughtsman.

Jacques Jacob Arend was murdered on 15 March 1943 he was cremated on 18 March 1943. The urn with his ashes was placed on the Jewish cemetery in Diemen on field U, row 7, grave number 12.

Rosina de Solla-Sturkop- Amsterdam, 14 September 1860

Rosina de Solla-Sturkop,murdered on 15 March 1943 she was cremated on 18 March 1943. The urn with her ashes was placed on the Portuguese-Israelite cemetery in Ouderkerk at the Amstel on field 1894, Ca.12, Sa.13.

Borach Sleutelberg-Born Delfzijl, 26 February 1860.Occupation,butcher.

Borach Sleutelberg, murdered on 15 March 1943, he was cremated on 17 March 1943. The urn with ashes was placed on the Jewish cemetery in Diemen on field U, row 2, grave number 6.

Margaretha Hamburger-Stouwer-Born in Amsterdam, 22 May 1870.

Margaretha Hamburger-Stouwer ,murdered on 15 March 1943, she was cremated on 17 March 1943. The urn with her ashes was placed on the Jewish cemetery in Diemen on field U, row 2, grave number 1.

Hermine Sichel-Schwabacher- born in Frankfurt am Main, 17 April 1858

Hermine Sichel-Schwabacher, murdered on 15 March 1943, she was cremated on 18 March 1943. The urn with her ashes was placed on the Jewish cemetery in Diemen on field U, row 4, grave number 27.

Margaretha Hamburger-Stouwer-Born in Amsterdam, 22 May 1870.

Margaretha Hamburger-Stouwer. murdered on 15 March 1943,she was cremated on 17 March 1943. The urn with her ashes was placed on the Jewish cemetery in Diemen on field U, row 2, grave number 1.

Josua Colthof-Born in Opsterland, 10 May 1864.

Josua Colthof, murdered on 15 March 1943,he was cremated on 18 March 1943. The urn with his ashes was placed on the Jewish cemetery in Diemen on field U, row 1, grave number 3.

With the exception of Jacques Jacob Arend, all of these people were 70 years and older. It is clear that the conditions in the camp must have killed them, to me that makes it murder.

sources

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/westerbork

https://culture.ec.europa.eu/cultural-heritage/initiatives-and-success-stories/european-heritage-label/european-heritage-label-sites/camp-westerbork-the-netherlands

https://www.tracesofwar.com/articles/4439/Camp-Westerbork.htm#

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00