Executive Order 9066

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Ten weeks after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066, authorizing the removal of any or all people from military areas “as deemed necessary or desirable.” The military in turn defined the entire West Coast, home to the majority of Americans of Japanese ancestry or citizenship, as a military area. By June, more than 110,000 Japanese Americans were relocated to remote internment camps built by the U.S. military in scattered locations around the country. For the next two and a half years, many of these Japanese Americans endured extremely difficult living conditions and poor treatment by their military guards.

“Executive” Order No. 9066

The President

Executive Order

Authorizing the Secretary of War to Prescribe Military Areas

Whereas the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, national-defense premises, and national-defense utilities as defined in Section 4, Act of April 20, 1918, 40 Stat. 533, as amended by the Act of November 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1220, and the Act of August 21, 1941, 55 Stat. 655 (U.S.C., Title 50, Sec. 104);

Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War, and the Military Commanders whom he may from time to time designate, whenever he or any designated Commander deems such action necessary or desirable, to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine, from which any or all persons may be excluded, and with respect to which, the right of any person to enter, remain in, or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion. The Secretary of War is hereby authorized to provide for residents of any such area who are excluded therefrom, such transportation, food, shelter, and other accommodations as may be necessary, in the judgment of the Secretary of War or the said Military Commander, and until other arrangements are made, to accomplish the purpose of this order. The designation of military areas in any region or locality shall supersede designations of prohibited and restricted areas by the Attorney General under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, and shall supersede the responsibility and authority of the Attorney General under the said Proclamations in respect of such prohibited and restricted areas.

 

 

I hereby further authorize and direct the Secretary of War and the said Military Commanders to take such other steps as he or the appropriate Military Commander may deem advisable to enforce compliance with the restrictions applicable to each Military area here in above authorized to be designated, including the use of Federal troops and other Federal Agencies, with authority to accept assistance of state and local agencies.

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I hereby further authorize and direct all Executive Departments, independent establishments and other Federal Agencies, to assist the Secretary of War or the said Military Commanders in carrying out this Executive Order, including the furnishing of medical aid, hospitalization, food, clothing, transportation, use of land, shelter, and other supplies, equipment, utilities, facilities, and services.

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This order shall not be construed as modifying or limiting in any way the authority heretofore granted under Executive Order No. 8972, dated December 12, 1941, nor shall it be construed as limiting or modifying the duty and responsibility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, with respect to the investigation of alleged acts of sabotage or the duty and responsibility of the Attorney General and the Department of Justice under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, prescribing regulations for the conduct and control of alien enemies, except as such duty and responsibility is superseded by the designation of military areas here under.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

The White House,

February 19, 1942.”

On March 9, 1942, Roosevelt signed Public Law 503 (approved after only an hour of discussion in the Senate and thirty minutes in the House) in order to provide for the enforcement of his executive order. Authored by War Department official Karl Bendetsen

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—who would later be promoted to Director of the Wartime Civilian Control Administration and oversee the “evacuation” of Japanese Americans—the law made violations of military orders a misdemeanor punishable by up to $5,000 in fines and one year in prison.

As a result, approximately 120,000 men, women, and children of Japanese ancestry were evicted from the West Coast of the United States and held in internment camps across the country. Japanese Americans in Hawaii were not incarcerated in the same way, the attack on Pearl Harbor and the Battle of Niihau notwithstanding. Although the Japanese American population in Hawaii was nearly 40% of the population of Hawaii itself, only a few thousand people were detained there, supporting the eventual finding that their mass removal on the West Coast was motivated by reasons other than “military necessity

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Over two-thirds of the people of Japanese ethnicity interned—almost 70,000—were American citizens. Many of the rest had lived in the country between 20 and 40 years. Most Japanese Americans, particularly the first generation born in the United States (the nisei), considered themselves loyal to the United States of America. No Japanese American citizen or Japanese national residing in the United States was ever found guilty of sabotage or espionage.

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Americans of Italian and German ancestry were also targeted by these restrictions, including internment. 11,000 people of German ancestry were interned, as were 3,000 people of Italian ancestry, along with some Jewish refugees. The interned Jewish refugees came from Germany, as the U.S. government did not differentiate between ethnic Jews and ethnic Germans (the term “Jewish” was defined as a religious practice, not an ethnicity). Some of the internees of European descent were interned only briefly, while others were held for several years beyond the end of the war. Like the Japanese internees, these smaller groups had American-born citizens in their numbers, especially among the children. A few members of ethnicities of other Axis countries were interned, but exact numbers are unknown.

Operation PX-Planned Japanese Bio-Chemical attack on the USA.

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Operation PX was the codename for the Japanese plan for a biological terror attack on the U.S. west coast in World War 2. The planned operation was abandoned due to the strong opposition of Chief of General Staff Yoshijirō Umezu, as well as the Japan surrender following the atomic bombings and the Soviet declaration of war.

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Operation PX, also known as “Cherry Blossoms at Night” was proposed in December 1944 by the Japanese Naval General Staff, led by Vice-Admiral Jisaburō Ozawa. The name for the operation came from the Japanese use of the code name PX for Pestis bacillus-infected fleas.

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In planning the operation, the navy partnered with Lieutenant-General Shirō Ishii of Unit 731, who had extensive experience on weaponizing pathogenic bacteria and human vulnerability to biological and chemical warfare.

https://dirkdeklein.net/2016/07/01/unit-731-japanese-wwii-experiments/

The plan for the attack involved Seiran aircraft launched by submarine aircraft carriers upon the United States West Coast – specifically, the cities of San Diego, Los Angeles, and San Francisco.

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The airplanes would spread weaponized bubonic plague, cholera, typhus, dengue fever, and other pathogens in a biological terror attack upon the United States. Even the submarine crews would infect themselves and run ashore in a suicide mission

Planning for Operation PX was finalized on March 26, 1945, but shelved shortly thereafter due to the strong opposition of Chief of General Staff Yoshijirō Umezu. Umezu later explained his decision as such: “If bacteriological warfare is conducted, it will grow from the dimension of war between Japan and America to an endless battle of humanity against bacteria. Japan will earn the derision of the world.”

A final planned use of the biological weapons came just after the Japan surrender, as Shirō Ishii planned to stage suicide germ attacks against U.S. occupying troops in Japan. This planned attack never took place either, due to opposition from Yoshijirō Umezu and Torashirō Kawabe, who did not want Ishii to die in a suicide attack, and asked him to instead “wait for [the] next opportunity calmly.”

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After the war, Operation PX was first discussed in an interview by former captain Eno Yoshio, who was heavily involved with planning for the attack, in an interview with the Sankei newspaper on August 14, 1977. According to Yoshio, “This is the first time I have said anything about Operation PX, because it involved the rules of war and international law. The plan was not put into actual operation, but I felt that just the fact that it was formulated would caused international misunderstanding. I never even leaked anything to the staff of the war history archives at the Japanese Defense Agency, and I don’t feel comfortable talking about it even now. But at the time, Japan was losing badly, and any means to win would have been all right.

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Duquesne Spy Ring

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The Duquesne spy ring was the largest espionage operation case in the history of the United States that ended in convictions. It was a German ring operating within the United States during World War II and was run by Frederick Joubert Duquesne, a South African who became a naturalized American citizen in December 1913.

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The ring was established in order to gather information that could be used in the event the United States entered the war. It was assigned to find holes in American military forces and preparedness before the United States entered the war and to find ways to destabilize the country and its morale. The information that members of the ring passed forward related to acts of domestic terrorism and sabotage as well as industrial and military espionage.

The ring came to light when William Sebold, a German native who had served in the Imperial German Army during World War I, moved to the United States and became a naturalized citizen on February 10, 1936.

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While living in the United States and for a while in South Africa, he had worked in industrial and aircraft plants. When he returned to Germany in February 1939 to visit his ailing mother, he was approached by a member of the Gestapo and told that he would be contacted at a later time. He obtained a job in Mülheim and seven months later was visited by a gentleman who introduced himself as Dr. Gassner. Gassner questioned him intensely about his knowledge of military planes and equipment and then posed the possibility of Sebold returning to the United States and serving as a spy for Germany. Subsequent visits by Gassner and another man (later identified as Major Nickolaus Ritter of the German Secret Police) prompted him to agree to act as a spy rather than face reprisals against his family in Germany.

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Ritter was the Abwehr head of espionage against the United States and Britain and was determined to have a multi-faceted apparatus in place before the United States could get involved in the war.

Sebold’s passport was stolen after the visit by Gassner so he went to the U.S. Consulate to get a replacement. While there, he quietly told the consulate official that he had been recruited to spy on America and wanted instead to work as a double-agent for the U.S. Government. He was sent to Hamburg for espionage training by the Germans and was tutored on the use of micro-photographing and preparing coded-messages. He was given five microphotographs with information about the information he was to pass back to Germany. He was told to keep two and deliver the other three to three operatives, including Frederick Duquesne. He sailed back to the United States through Genoa, Italy and arrived in New York City in February 1940 under the guise of Harry Sawyer.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation had been informed of Sebold’s new role and aided him in getting a home and an office in the city. He played the role of Harry Sawyer, a diesel engineering consultant, and his office was chosen such the FBI could easily conduct surveillance at all times (the office was outfitted with hidden microphones and two-way mirrors). The FBI also set up an elaborate shortwave radio transmitting system and used it to maintain contact with German run shortwave radio stations in Germany. It would be the main radio apparatus used to communicate back and forth between the spies and their German handlers. FBI agents, acting as Sebold, passed along authentic sounding messages for 16 months (a total of 300 messages were sent to the Germans and 200 were received).

Sebold met repeatedly with various members of the spy network in his office, with the FBI recording all of it. He met several times with Duquesne and Duquesne passed information related to sabotage possibilities in industrial plants as well as plans for the development of a new bomb that he had stolen from a DuPont plant in Wilmington, Delware. Another member of the ring, Paul Bante, discussed plan to bomb different locations and even delivered dynamite and detonation caps to Sebold.

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Through Sebold’s undercover efforts, the FBI gained enough evidence to arrest and convict all of the spies before they had a chance to carry out any of their goals. Fourteen of the group entered guilty pleas and the other 19 were found guilty of espionage on December 13, 1941. On the 2nd of January 1942,they were sentenced to a total of 300 years in prison. A higher-up in German-intelligence said that the Sebold activity dealt a death blow to the German-espionage efforts in the United States and J. Edgar Hoover called the sting operation the greatest spy roundup in the history of the United States.

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Pearl Harbor

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Today marks the 80th anniversary of Japan’s biggest mistake in WWII, the attack on Pearl Harbor

Allegedly Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto said “I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve.” after the attack and he was proven to be right.

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Inevitably the US would have been involved at some stage but the Pearl Harbor attacks made them more determined.

Rather then going into too much detail of that fateful day I will post pictures below,because after all a picture paints a thousands words.

The Media:

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on War Fatalities in Hawaii

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USS Arizona

Mortally Wounded and Sinking

USS West Virginia and USS Tennessee

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The Attack

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The aftermath

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I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

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updated December 7,2021.