Rechtzaak voor een verrader

Ik weet niet welke straf Mevrouw C. uit Amsterdam kreeg, ik ga er vanuit dat ze de doodstraf kreeg.

Het gaat ook over een van de zovele zelfmoorden tijdens de Shoah, waar zo weinig over gesprokem word.

-Aanklacht, Beschuldiging en Veroordeling van Mevrouw C. uit de Blasiusstraat in Amsterdam, die zich met anderen bezig hield met het verraden van Joodse gezinnen, waaronder het gezin van Michel Gompers en Bertha Vogel.-

“De aangeklaagde Mevrouw C. werd er van beschuldigd dat zij, Nederlandse zijnde, tijdens de vijandelijke bezetting van het Rijk in Europa:

A: In het algemeen blijk heeft gegeven van nationaalsocialistische gezindheid door in of omstreeks 1944 te zijn toegetreden als lid van de Nederlandse Volksdienst; NSB raambiljetten voor de ramen van haar woning te hebben gehad alsmede NSB vergaderingen te hebben bezocht en de bladen Volk en Vaderland en De Daad te hebben gelezen.

B: In of omstreeks 1943 M. Gompers en diens echtgenote en B. Vogel, een Joodse familie, heeft blootgesteld aan aanhouding of vrijheidsbeperking door of vanwege de vijand, door aan de Duitse Politie herhaaldelijk t.a.v. beide personen inlichtingen en aanwijzingen te hebben verstrekt, ten gevolge waarvan zij beide op of omstreeks 9 Augustus 1943 door beambten van de SD zijn aangehouden, waardoor zij hulp en steun heeft verleend aan de vijand; op grond van welk handelen zij geacht moet worden zich doelbewust te hebben gedragen in strijd met de belangen van het Nederlandse volk.

De getuigenis van M. Gompers, zoals opgetekend in het proces verbaal opgemaakt d.d. 4 Maart 1946, door twee agenten van politie der Gemeente Amsterdam, luidde: Tijdens de grote Jodenrazzia in Juni 1943 kwamen de Duitsers ook aan mijn woning in de Blasiusstraat te Amsterdam. Mijn vrouw en ik werden toen niet aangehouden, omdat mijn vrouw een bewijs van Dr. Peeters kon overleggen, waarin stond dat zij draagster van typhusbacillen was. Ik heb toen vanuit mijn woning gezien en gehoord, dat Mevrouw C. tegen een der Duitse officieren zeide: “die vrouw is niet ziek, zij loopt altijd buiten”, waarop die Duitser is het Duits zeide: “daar heb je niets mee te maken, wat ik doe is goed”. Ik hoorde toen dat Mevrouw C. tegen de omstanders zei: “we gaan morgen naar de Euterpestraa”. De volgende dag kwamen er inderdaad twee mannen, die zeiden, dat ze van de SD waren. Zij hebben ons, nadat wij de verklaring van Dr. Peeters getoond hadden, echter niet medegenomen. Op 9 Augustus 1943 ben ik des avonds in mijn woning tesamen met mijn vrouw ondanks de verklaring van Dr. Peeters aangehouden door twee SD-ers en vervolgens overgebracht naar de Euterpestraat. Mijn vrouw en ik zijn kort daarop via de Hollandse Schouwburg overgebracht naar het Joods Ziekenhuis. Mijn vrouw heeft, naar ik later vernam, tijdens haar transport naar Westerbork zelfmoord gepleegd, door vergif in te nemen. Op 19 September 1943 kreeg ik bericht van haar overlijden; zelf heb ik uit het ziekenhuis kunnen ontkomen.

Zelf heeft Mevrouw C. ter zitting onder meer het volgende verklaard:

Ik heb in 1943 tijdens een razzia op Joden in de straat waar ik woonde tegen de Duitse politie gezegd: “De goede Joden halen jullie weg en de krengen laten jullie zitten”, ik wees daarbij in de richting van het huis van de familie M. Gompers. Ik leefde in onmin met de familie Gompers, omdat mijn kinderen, die naar de Oostmark waren geweest, dikwijls in de buurt geplaagd werden. Ik kon het voorts niet hebben, dat vele Joden waarmee ik op goeden voet leefde werden gearresteerd en weggehaald, terwijl de familie Gompers zich voortdurend aan arrestatie wist te onttrekken. Ik heb toen tijdens de bovenvermelde razzia de aandacht van de Duitse politie op de familie Gompers gevestigd. Bij die razzia is de familie Gompers niet aangehouden. Gompers en diens echtgenote B. Vogel zijn eerst enige tijd later door de Duitsers weggehaald. De getuigenverklaringen zijn ongunstig voor mij, omdat men in de buurt een hekel aan mij had; daar mijn kinderen veelvuldigd geplaagd werden, dreigde ik nog al eens met de Duitse politie, zonder evenwel mijn dreigement uit te voeren…….

Uitspraak, Veroordeling en Vonnis gewezen op 9 September 1947, waarbij de beschuldigde wordt schuldig verklaard aan het hier voren genoemde wat bewezen wordt verklaard en legt de navolgende maatregelen aan de beschuldigde op:

1): internering waarbij in overweging gegeven wordt de tijdsduur daarvan te beperken tot vier jaren en daarop in mindering te brengen de door de beschuldigde vanaf 8 Juni 1945 in voorinternering doorgebrachte tijd, zodat internering behoort te eindigen op 8 Juni 1949.

2): Ontzetting van het recht van kiezen en verkiesbaarheid bij krachtens wettelijk voorschrift uitgeschreven verkiezingen.

Bepaalt voorzoveel nodig dat het beheer over het vermogen van de beschuldigde een einde zal nemen binnen drie maanden natat de interneren is beëindigd.”

Bron

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/641263/verraad-beschuldigd-veroordeeld.

Deception

If you look at the picture, it appears to be a picture of a marketplace. Initially, you will see nothing wrong with it.

There is a man with a bike talking to another man, possibly about the weather. You can see a young boy running, and perhaps he is chasing the dog.

There are market stalls with people around them, browsing and most likely are purchasing goods. It could be a market anywhere in the world. This market is on Waterloo Square in Amsterdam.

But the apparent mundane appearance of the market is deceiving. If you analyze the picture and look closer, you will spot a few things.

In the middle, there is a signpost it says, Alleen toegang voor joden [Access for Jews only]. On the two opposite corners, two men wearing a star on their coats.

Most of those people on that market would be murdered within 2 years of that picture being taken. There would have been people then and even now who will think that things didn’t look that bad at all for the Jews, they even had their market.

The people in the photo don’t realize the significance of the picture. It was meant to deceive. The Jews were given their market and other facilities to make it easier for the Nazis to single them out. They had to wear a star so the Nazis could pick them out. They were put in ghettos to make it easier to round them up for deportation to extermination camps.

source

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Etty Hillesum—Murdered Beauty

At first, I was reluctant to use the word beauty in the title because we now live in an era where some people might find that offensive, and they will scream about it. I pity them because they lose out on so much.

Etty Hillesum was a beauty in every sense of the word. It may have been too much for the Nazis because they murdered her. She was murdered on November 30, 1943, in Auschwitz according to data from the Red Cross.

Etty (or Esther) was the daughter of Levie Hillesum and Riva Bernstein. She was born on January 15, 1914, in Middelburg in the Dutch province of Zeeland. In 1932 she moved to Amsterdam to study law and Slavic languages. In Amsterdam, she met Julius Spier. He became her teacher and great love. During the war, she worked for the Jewish Council at Camp Westerbork and other places. She wrote several letters from Westerbork and kept a diary.

In March 1937 she took a room at 6 Gabriel Metsustraat in south Amsterdam in the house of an accountant Hendrik (Han) Wegerif, a widower aged 62 who hired her as a housekeeper. He also began an affair with her. She lived in this house until her final departure for Westerbork in 1942, and it was in her room there that much of her diary was written. The small community of people who shared the house with her were important to her. In addition to Han Wegerif, there was his 21-year-old son Hans, a German cook named Kathe, a student Bernard Meylink, and a nurse, Maria Tuinzing, who became one of Etty’s close friends.

The most important relationship of the diary is with the psychochirologist (hand reader) Julius Spier. Born in 1887 in Germany, he had come to Amsterdam in 1939. Spier had worked in Zurich with Jung, who had encouraged him to develop his skill in chirology, the practice of psychoanalysis through the reading of people’s palms. He was a gifted and charismatic figure and gathered around him a group of students, particularly women. Etty became part of this group and went into therapy with Spier, developing a close relationship with him and becoming his secretary.

Etty was an intensely alive and sexual young woman, yet she felt plagued by what she called her ‘confounded eroticism”. But what healthy woman in her 20s isn’t interested in sex?

In 1942 she was given a position in the cultural affairs department of the Jewish Council. She worked there for only two weeks, which she calls hell in her diary. In August 1942, she received a call for deportation to Westerbork. Etty left and continued her social activities in Westerbork. As a member of the Jewish Council, she had a special travel visa that allowed her to return to Amsterdam many times before being deported with her family on September 7, 1943.

Just as Anne Frank also wrote a diary, which was released after the war, titled, “An Interrupted Life,” I’ve chosen a few quotes from the diary. The words are profoundly sad but also beautiful and with a sense of hope.

“Ultimately, we have just one moral duty: to reclaim large areas of peace in ourselves, more and more peace, and to reflect it toward others. And the more peace there is in us, the more peace there will also be in our troubled world.”

“Each of us must turn inward and destroy in himself all that he thinks he ought to destroy in others”

“As life becomes harder and more threatening, it also becomes richer, because the fewer expectations we have, the more good things of life become unexpected gifts that we accept with gratitude.”

“Sometimes my day is crammed full of people and talk and yet I have the feeling of living in utter peace and quiet. And the tree outside my window, in the evenings, is a greater experience than all those people put together.”

“My immediate reaction on meeting a man is invariably to gauge his sexual possibilities. I recognize this as a bad habit that must be stamped out”

“Yes, we women, we foolish, idiotic, illogical women, we all seek Paradise and the Absolute. And yet my brain, my capable brain, tells me that there are no absolutes, that everything is relative, endlessly diverse, and in eternal motion, and it is precisely for that reason that life is so exciting and fascinating, but also so very, very painful. We [women] want to perpetuate ourselves in a man.”

“I don’t want to be anything special. I only want to try to be true to that in me which seeks to fulfil its promise.”

“I know and share the many sorrows a human being can experience, but I do not cling to them; they pass through me, like life itself, as a broad eternal stream…and life continues…”

“By ‘coming to terms with life’ I mean: the reality of death has become a definite part of my life; my life has, so to speak, been extended by death, by my looking death in the eye and accepting it, by accepting destruction as part of life and no longer wasting my energies on fear of death or the refusal to acknowledge its inevitability. It sounds paradoxical: by excluding death from our life we cannot live a full life, and by admitting death into our life we enlarge and enrich it.”

sources

https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/61163.Etty_Hillesum

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/136401/esther-hillesum

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/227368/julius-philipp-spier

https://www.lastampa.it/vatican-insider/en/2018/11/26/news/etty-hillesum-the-woman-who-found-god-during-the-shoah-1.34063034

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Remembering Fré Cohen

One of the aspects of the Holocaust that is often forgotten about, maybe on purpose, is suicide. There were so many who in their desperation only saw one way out and that was by taking their own lives.

Frederika Sophia (Fré) Cohen was born on 11 August 1903 in Amsterdam. She was the oldest daughter of diamond cutter Levie Cohen, a member of the Social-Democrat Jewish community in Amsterdam. Like many other diamond workers, Levie Cohen was often out of work. Therefore, the Cohen family moved to Antwerp in Belgium, where there was more work in the diamond business. After the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the family returned to Amsterdam.

Fré Cohen was a successful and image-defining woman in the men’s world of graphic design. She was of great importance to the Amsterdam School. In her work, both the formal language and the ideals of the Amsterdam School are clearly expressed. She designed graphic print work for the city of Amsterdam, for the socialist movement, such as the Social Democratic Workers Party (SDAP), the Arbeiders Jeugd Centrale (AJC), trade unions, and cooperatives.

Her Jewish origins are in keeping with the story of the Amsterdam School, which had an important basis in the Jewish proletariat, including the diamond working movement.

She had a large output of rather varied printed matter, from window bills to bookplates, diplomas, illustrations, running headers, baby announcements, and postcards. There are also some three-dimensional works such as boxes and scale models. She created folders and maps for Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, in a modernist style using gold, red and blue. Besides, she made paintings, portraits, drawings, woodcuts, and linocuts.

In 1935, the Maastricht publisher A.A.M. Stols publishes Cohen’s work in Het Schoone Boek. 15) Even though his interest is mainly in bibliophile productions and not in large, machine-made editions.

Stols’s review of Cohen’s work demonstrates the success of publishers such as the World Library and Querido that use new techniques and attract ‘artists and innovators in this field.

During the occupation, in 1941 and 1942, Cohen made picture postcards for the Gebroeders Spanjerberg company, with traditional costumes from Huizen, Bunschoten-Spakenburg, and Zeeland towns.

In November 1941, Cohen was appointed as a teacher at the Jewish applied arts school W.A. van Leer. Not only Dutch Jews but also German emigrants, such as Stefan Schlesinger and Leon Kratzenstein, taught at the Jewish applied arts school Van Leer.

The teachers of the school were initially exempt from deportation. Fré Cohen was one of the gesperrden (exempt), but in May 1942 received a call-up for Arbeitseinsatz and then went into hiding. First with J. Uylings in Amsterdam, where she hid for three weeks. Then she went into hiding in Diemen, with her friend Rie Keesje, after that in Hilversum, with the parents of Pieter Brattinga, and finally, she hid in Lochem with Margo Vos and finally in Borne, with Hendrik and Mien Zomer. During that period she continued to work illegally when she could. On 12 June 1943, she was arrested by the Germans in Borne. In haste, she took the pills she had hoarded for such an emergency. After two days in a coma, she died on 14 June 1943 at the age of 39 at a hospital in Hengelo.

Such a tragedy and all the art that would never be created.

sources

https://www.hetschip.nl/en/visitors/activities/exhibition-fre-cohen

Donation

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Hiding in a Zoo

I had heard the story of the ‘Zookeeper’s wife’ about the lady who saved hundreds of Polish Jews by hiding them in in the Warsaw Zoo.

However I had not been aware that Artis Zoo in Amsterdam also had hidden Dutch Jews and resistance fighters. ARTIS was founded under the name Natura Artis Magistra by Westerman, Werlemann and Wijsmuller in 1838, with the objective of “Promoting the knowledge of Natural History”.

The initial collection was not particularly spectacular – a few parrots, monkeys and a wildcat from Suriname – but a year later ARTIS was able to adopt C. van Aken’s entire ‘travelling menagerie’. A parade of animals, headed by the big elephant Jack, accompanied by numerous other animals including lions, a panther, a tiger, a puma, hyenas, polar bears, brown bears, a zebra, a gnu, a kangaroo and even a boa constrictor more than five metres long. ARTIS had suddenly become a real zoo.

Because ARTIS was located in the Portuguese part of the Jewish quarter, Sephardic artists were a regular here. Among them were Henri Teixeira de Mattos, an internationally renowned animal sculptor, his two cousins Joseph Teixeira de Mattos and Joseph Mendes da Costa, the painter-illustrator David Bueno de Mesquita, the renowned Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita, whose oeuvre consists of graphic representations of animals, and the Ashkenazi painter Martin Monnickendam.

In 1938 a large charity event was held for the benefit of the Jewish refugees, at the zoo.

Emanuel Boekman was o Jewish member of the board of ARTIS. On May 14,1940 the Dutch Army capitulated, A day later on May 15, Emanuel Boekman and his wife both committed suicide

During the Second World War, ARTIS was one of the few places in Amsterdam where people could still relax. The zoo remained open throughout the war and many Germans regularly visited the zoo to spend an afternoon there.

During the war years, between two and three hundred people found safe shelter in the garden – hidden in numerous animal shelters, in haylofts and in the cavernous monkey rock and goat rock; especially Jewish residents, young men trying to escape forced labor in Germany and people from the resistance.

No one knew exactly how many people there were. It was also not discussed for safety reasons.

For example, they were hidden in the Monkey Rock, the Buck Rock and in the attic of the Predator Gallery. During raids in the Jewish quarter, people fled to Artis, where they reported to the sitter Van Schalkwijk. He laid a plank over the moat around Monkey Rock so that the people could hide in it. Because of the water around the rock, the Germans had no idea that people were hiding in it.

That the permanent and temporary residents of Artis did succumb to hunger is due to the director Armand Sunier. Before the war, he had already stocked up on large quantities of fuel, hay, seeds and meat as a precautionary measure. In addition, Dr. Sunier had managed to get a large allocation (the Nazis loved animals more then some people) ,with great persuasion, from the Nazis for the necessary quantities of hay and straw, and a reasonable assortment of fish, meat, vegetables, fruit and seeds. For example, in the first years of the war in Artis no animals and people had to go hungry.There were even cigarettes; above the lions were in fact 2 sons of tobacconist Swaan in hiding.

The resistance fighter Henk Blonk went into hiding in the zoo in 1942 because he was wanted by the German police.

He spent several weeks in the wolf enclosure because he made or repaired weapons for the resistance. It got a little too hot under his feet when he narrowly escaped during a raid by the Grüne Polizei, He recalled:

‘Go into the chimpanzee’s cage tonight’. So I slept in the chimpanzee’s cage. It was bursting with cockroaches. They walked all over me and even ate part of my eyebrow.

In the cage next door was the gorilla Japie. Jiminy (a chimp) was watching me through a hole in the wall the whole time. You thought you were pretty safe, but that monkey actually told everything.”

During the day Blonk, like all other Artis people in hiding, simply mixed with the public. There was a strange atmosphere in the garden.

A Jewish person in hiding who spent some time in the birdhouse’s kitchen said in 2008 that he had certainly had a pleasant time – despite the austere menu of carrots, onions, leftovers of homemade bread and syrup from sugar beets cooked on the stove. Another survivor later recalled the nighttime walks by a “beautiful, bright moon.”

Minder Van Schalkwijk – 52 years employed by Artis – managed the monkey house and the monkey rock during the war. He was the one who let in the Jews looking for a hiding place:

“During a raid, the boys came through the Plantage Doklaan and then I let them through the back door into the monkey house. We then went straight to the monkey rock where I put a plank over the water. They would sit in the rock with the monkeys. Because of the water around the rock, the Germans didn’t mind that there were Jews. The soldiers also entered the garden themselves during a raid, but we were warned from the office that they were at the entrance, so that we could take our measures.”

It is amazing that no one was betrayed to the Nazis, given the fact that some Artis employees were Nazi sympathizers One employee of the planting department enlisted in the Waffen SS and traveled to the Eastern Front. Before his departure, he had added to his colleagues: “I am not betraying you!”

sources

Hoe werden de Artisdieren in oorlogstijd gevoerd?

https://www.joodsvirtueelmuseum.nl/tag/artis-tijdens-wo-ii/

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2, however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thank you. To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the PayPal link. Many thanks.

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Happy Birthday Harry van der Hak-Murdered in Auschwitz.

The birth of a baby is a joyous occasion, even in war time. I don’t know if it is a specific Jewish tradition, but I know it is a Dutch one, that the birth of a child is announced in the newspapers. As did Harry’s parents, Willy and Rose, when he was born on October 20,1942 in Amsterdam . They didn’t know though that he would not celebrate his 1st birthday. He was murdered in Auschwitz on September 3,1943.

Not much is known about Harry, how could that be he was only 10 months old when he was murdered. However I came across a story which mentions him, and a picture of Harry and his grandfather.

Frome the book “Op de foto in oorlogstijd. Studio Wolff, 1943″(In the photograph during war time, Studio Wolff) by Tamara Becker en An Huitzing

“Saturday 17 April was a warm and sunny day. Annemie had four clients. Greta Engers-Neustadt only had to cross the Noorder Amstellaan diagonally to reach Annemie. Ten days later, Greta’s daughter Rose would visit Annemie with her five-month-old son Harry. Greta was German, her husband Freerk came from Groningen. Freerk traded in foodstuffs; since February 1943 he was an employee of the rabbinate of the Dutch-Israeli Main Synagogue. Before Greta and Freerk came to Amsterdam, they lived in Osnabrück, where their children Rose, Horst and Heinz were born. Horst had emigrated to Palestine in 1934. Heinz had left for Amsterdam in the same year; he had moved to Noorder Amstellaan and worked as a salesman for a chemical factory. In 1936 he married Dora Pfingst, whom he knew from Osnabrück. Dora’s father Heinrich was a textile merchant, her mother had died in 1936. Four of Heinrich’s children left for the United States and one for Palestine. Because Heinrich could not get the papers for the US, he came to his daughter Dora and her husband Heinz Engers in 1939, hoping to emigrate from Amsterdam after all.[i]
Greta and Freerk had meanwhile come to Amsterdam with their daughter Rose in 1936; she also moved in with Heinz and Dora on the Noorder Amstellaan. Heinz and Dora later moved with their son and Dora’s father Heinrich to the Volkerakstraat, while Greta, Freerk and Rose remained on the Noorder Amstellaan. Rose worked as a costume seamstress. In 1941 she married Willy van der Hak; in October 1942 their son Harry was born. Willy’s also had a German mother and a Groningen father. Willy, his father Levie and his brother were metal traders. Willy’s family also settled in Amsterdam in the late 1930s, early 1940s. They were all deported and murdered with their families. Heinz, Dora and their son were arrested in 1942; Dora’s father in 1943.

Annemie took a series of portrait photos of Greta Engers-Neustadt on April 17, one of which could serve as a passport photo. On April 28, she would take a large series of photos of Rose as a proud mother with Harry on her arm and of little Harry separately. On June 17, 1943, Annemie would photograph Harry again, more or less sitting in his pram. The wind was blowing hard, Harry’s crest was blowing in all directions. That the pram stood where the RAI is now, can be seen in a photo in which Harry is lifted high into the air by an older man, presumably his paternal grandfather, Levie van der Hak. His maternal grandparents, Freerk and Greta Engers, were arrested at the end of May. They were murdered in Sobibor on July 23, 1943. Willy, Rose and Harry van der Hak, together with Willy’s parents, were arrested three days after the photos were taken in June, on the radiant June 20 when a large raid was held in Amsterdam. -South and East. The same day they arrived in Westerbork. Willy’s parents, aged 73 and 77, were murdered in Sobibor on July 2. Willy, Rose and Harry lived in Westerbork in barrack 57 for another two months, until they were deported with a thousand people to Auschwitz on 31 August of that year – Queen’s Day. Harry van der Hak was murdered before his first birthday.”

source

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/184000/harry-van-der-hak

Just a Man on a Bike

When you look at the picture, your first reaction is probably think it’s an ordinary historical picture from somewhere in the Netherlands.

The picture couldn’t be more typically Dutch if for one detail—the photograph was taken in Amsterdam during the war, and the man is wearing a star on his jacket.

As in all occupied countries the Star of David was introduced to the Netherlands. The star had to be clearly visible, as with this Jewish Man from Amsterdam who cycled on Leidseplein in May 1942.

It is a typical Dutch picture because the man was Dutch, who just happened to be Jewish, but in the Netherlands that shouldn’t matter. No one cares about your religion and what does matter is how you conduct yourself in society.

Yet, between 1940 and 1945, religion suddenly did matter. The Jews were singled-out and 75% of them were murdered. The Dutch Jews had always been a sizeable minority, majority living in Amsterdam. They lived in the most densely populated country in Europe with an advanced social administration—which was left intact after the swift and decisive Nazi invasion of 1940 and helped the Nazis grately in identifying the Dutch Jews. Only an estimated 35,000 of the initial 140,000 Jews who lived the Netherlands survived the Holocaust. More then likely the man on the bike was also murdered.

To me that picture is more disturbing than the pictures from the concentration camp. The picture tells me that he really was not different from anyone else in that crowd of cyclists, except for that one patch on his coat. He was just a man on a bike going about his business, not causing any harm to anyone, Conducting himself properly in society and yet, he was singled-out. It could have been anyone.

Remembering Simon Walvisch and his family.

Simon Walvisch was born in Amsterdam, 1 on 9 March 1882.He was murdered in Auschwitz, on 1 October 1942. Reached the age of 60 years

Occupation: Tobacconist

He was a son of Jacobus Mozes Walvisch and Schoontje Zeeman. He married Rosette Abram, a daughter of Simon Abram and Judith Presser, on 29 June 1904 in Amsterdam. About four months later, on October 23, 1904, twins were born: Judith and Jacob Walvisch. However, both children died soon after birth: Judith died on November 13, 1904 and Jacob three days earlier, on November 10, 1904. After the twins, two more children followed: on April 12, 1906, Schoontje was born and on July 21, 1907 Judith. She was called Jute.

Simon’s wife Rosette Abram, however, died on December 30, 1923, and she is buried at the Jewish Cemetery in Diemen.

Less than a year later, on September 18, 1924, Simon Walvisch married Nathan Melkman’s widow, Susanna Swart, a daughter of Jeremias Swart and Saartje Leuw.

In her first marriage to Nathan Melkman, Susanna had a daughter, Flora Melkman, who was born on September 21, 1919 and who was adopted as a stepdaughter into Simon’s family after the marriage of Simon Walvisch and Susanna Swart. On October 22, 1925, another daughter was born from Simon Walvisch’s second marriage to Susanna Swart, viz. Sophia Walvis.

Flora’s father, Nathan Melkman, died on August 21, 1920, aged just 27. He is buried in the Jewish Cemetery in Diemen.

Simon Walvisch was murdered on 1 October 1942 in Auschwitz together with his second wife Susanna Swart and their joint daughter Sopiha Walvisch.

Simon’s children from his first marriage to Rosette Abram also did not survive the Holocaust either ; Schoontje was married to Samuel Sluijser and had two children with him, viz. Maurice and Rosette. The entire Sluijser-Walvisch family was murdered on 9 July 1943 in Sobibor.

The youngest daughter from Simon and Rosette’s first marriage was Judith Walvisch, called Juutje. She was married to Jeremias Swart and had two children with him: Ronny and Alfred. Ronny was murdered on 11 June 1943 in Sobibor together with her mother via the Kindertransport from Vught. Her husband Jeremias eventually ended up in Bergen Belsen where he died on December 17, 1944.

Flora Melkman, the daughter of Susanna Swart and Nathan Melkman, married Dorus Abraham in 1941. Both were murdered on September 30, 1942 in Auschwitz.

Three generations of one family murdered. Why??

I could have taken any name of the 559 Dutch Jewish citizens who were murdered on October 1,1942 in Auschwitz, but the fact that Simon’s whole family was murdered just got to me.

source

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/179764/simon-walvisch

September 29,1943-the last raid in Amsterdam.

On September 29, 1943, Amsterdam was declared ‘Judenrein’. (Free of Jews) This happened after a major raid, in which 5,000 people, including the board and employees of the Jewish Council, were arrested and transported via Amstel station to camp Westerbork.

Those who were able to avoid the raids ended up in hiding places. A countrywide hunt for Jews in hiding was conducted. Several additional deportation trains left in late 1943 and early 1944. The solution of the Jewish ‘problem’ in the Netherlands was almost final. Against this background, and as Germany’s overall situation deteriorated, Arthur Seyss-Inquart wrote a summarizing report of the anti-Jewish campaign in the Netherlands.

“Reich Committee for the Occupied Netherlands Territories, The Hague to Party Chancellery Chief Bormann copies to General Commissars in Netherlands and Plenipotentiary Dr. Schroeder

February 28, 1944

Dear Party Comrade Bormann,

We have cleaned up the Jewish question in the Netherlands, insofar as now we only have to carry out decisions that have already been formulated. The Jews have been eliminated from the body of the Dutch people and, insofar as they have not been transported to the East for labor, they are enclosed in a camp. We are dealing here first of all with some 1,500 persons who have not been transported to the East for special reasons such as interventions by churches or by personalities who are close to us. In the main I have warded off the interference of the churches in the whole Jewish question in that I held back the Christian Jews in a closed camp where they can be visited weekly by clergy. About 8-9,000 Jews have avoided transport by submerging [in hiding]. By and by they are being seized and sent to the East; at the moment, the rate of seizures is 5-600 a week. The Jewish property has been confiscated and is undergoing liquidation.

With the exception of a few enterprises which have not yet been Aryanized, but which have been placed under trusteeship, the liquidation is finished and the property converted into financial papers of the Reich. I count on a yield of ca. 500 million Guilders [more than $250,000,000]. At some appropriate time the future utilization of this money is to be decided on in concert with the Reich Finance Minister; however, the Reich Finance Minister agrees in principle to the use of these funds for purposes in the Netherlands.

The question of Jews in mixed marriages is still open. Here we went further than the Reich and obliged also these Jews to wear the star. I had also ordered that the Jewish partner in a childless mixed marriage should likewise be brought to the East for labor. Our Security Police processed a few hundred such cases, but then received instructions from Berlin not to go on, so that a few thousand of these Jews have remained in the country. Finally, Berlin expressed the wish that the Jews in mixed marriages be concentrated in the Jewish camp Westerbork, to be employed here in labor for the moment. Herewith we raise the problem of mixed marriages. Since this matter is basic I turn to you. The following is to be considered with respect to marriages in which there are children: if one parent is brought to a concentration camp and then probably to labor in the East, the children will always be under the impression that we took the parent away from them. As a matter of fact, the offspring of mixed marriages are more troublesome than full Jews. In political trials, for example, we can determine that it is precisely these offspring who start or carry out most of the assassination attempts or sabotage. If we now introduced a measure that is sure to release the hatred of these people, then we will have a group in our midst with which we will hardly be able to deal in any way save separation. If, in short, there is a plan which is aimed at the removal of Jewish partners from mixed marriages with children, then the children of these marriages will sooner or later have to travel the same road. Hence I believe that it may be more appropriate not to start on this course, but to decide in each instance whether to remove the whole family or—with due regard to security police precautions—to permit the Jewish member to remain in the family. In the first case, the couple, complete with children, will have to be segregated, possibly like the Jews in Theresienstadt. But in that case one must remember that the offspring will get together to have more children, so that practically the Jewish problem will not be solved lest we take some opportunity to remove this whole society from the Reich’s sphere of interest. We are [now] trying the other way in that we free the Jewish partner who is no longer to have children, or who allows himself to be sterilized, from wearing the star and permit him to stay with his family. These Jews—at the moment there must be 4-5,000 in the Netherlands—remain under a certain amount of security police control with respect to residence and employability. For example, they are not permitted to direct an enterprise which has employees or occupy a leading position in such an enterprise. There are quite a few volunteers for sterilization. I believe also that we have nothing to fear any more from these people, since their decision indicates a willingness to accept conditions as they are. The situation with the Jewish women is not so simple, since the surgical procedure is known to be difficult. All the same I believe in time this way will yield results, provided one does not decide on the radical method of removing the whole family. For the Netherlands, then, I would consider the following for a conclusion of the Jewish problem:

  1. The male Jewish partner in a mixed marriage—so far as he has not been freed from the star for reasons mentioned above—is taken for enclosed labor to Westerbork. This measure would signify no permanent separation, but action of a security police nature for the duration of exceptional conditions. These Jews will be employed accordingly and will also receive appropriate wages with which they can support their families who will remain behind. They will also receive a few days leave about once in three months. One can proceed with childless female partners in mixed marriages in the same way. We have here in the Netherlands 834 male Jews in childless mixed marriages, 2,775 [male] Jews in mixed marriages with children, and 574 Jewesses in childless mixed marriages. Under certain circumstances these Jews can return to their families, for example, if they submit to sterilization, or if the reasons for separation become less weighty in some other way, or if other precautions are taken or conditions develop which make separation no longer seem necessary.
  2. The Jewish women in mixed marriages with children—the number involved is 1,448—should be freed from the star. The following considerations apply here: it is impossible to take these Jewish women from their families—the Reich Security Main Office agrees—if there are children under 14. On the other hand the women with children over 14 would in most cases have reached an age which would entitle them to request freedom from the star because it is hardly likely that they will have more children.
  3. I am now going to carry out the Law for the Protection of Blood [prohibition of intermarriage and extramarital relations between Aryans and non-Aryans] in the Netherlands, and
  4. make possible divorce in mixed marriages by reason of race difference. These four measures together will constitute a final cleanup of the Jewish question in the Netherlands. Since this regulation could in a certain sense produce a precedent for the Reich, even while in the long run the regulation of mixed marriages in the Reich will also apply in the Netherlands, I am informing you, Mr. Party Director, of my intentions in the hope that I may have your reactions. I wrote in the same vein to the Reichsfuehrer-SS [Himmler].

With best regards,
Heil Hitler!
Yours,

Seyss-Inquart”

sources

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/seyss-inquart-summarizes-the-anti-jewish-campaign-in-the-netherlands

https://www.annefrank.org/en/timeline/113/last-raids-in-amsterdam-17000-jews-arrested/

A murdered family.

The baby in the picture is Jonas David Kloot, he would have celebrated his 80th birthday today. He would have been blowing out 80 birthday candles on his birthday cake. But he didn’t even get to blow out his first birthday candle. Jonas was born on September 15,1942 in Amsterdam. Less then 9 months later, June 11,1943 he was murdered in Sobibor.

The other people in the photograph are Jonas’s dad, Hijman Kloot. Born in Amsterdam, on 5 June 1904. Murdered in Sobibor, 9 July 1943.Reached the age of 39 years. Occupation: Merchant

Jonas’s Mother, Femmina Kloot-Engelsman. Born in Amsterdam, 19 March 1908 . Murdered in Sobibor, 11 June 1943.

Jonas’s oldest sister, Clara Kloot. Born in Amsterdam, 7 March 1931.Murdered in Sobibor, 11 June 1943. Reached the age of 12

Jonas’s youngest sister, Annie Kloot. Born in Amsterdam, 7 August 1935.Murdered in Sobibor, 11 June 1943. Reached the age of 7.

Femmina and her 3 children were all murdered on the same day. They were all deported from Westerbork to Sobibor on June 8,1943 and were murdered on arrival on June 11,1943.

The Kloot family were not the only ones on that Transport. There were in total 3015 on that train, the majority were murdered on arrival in Sobibor on June 11,1943. Just think about that, about 2900 were murdered on one day.

The ages of those on the transport were:

Hijman Kloot and Femmina Engelsman married in 1929 in Amsterdam.

All members of the extended Kloot members were murdered in Sobibor, with the exception of Samuel Kloot and Isaac Kloot, 2 brothers of Hijman Koot, they were murdered in Auschwitz.

Samuel’s wife and 2 year old son were also murdered in Auschwitz. As were the 9 year old daughter, and wife of Isaac Kloot.

sources

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/mensen?transport_from=https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/kampen/4869&transport_to=https://data.niod.nl/WO2_Thesaurus/kampen/4855&transport_date=1943-6-8

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/177108/hijman-kloot