1.5 Million Stars

I recently read a scientific report about the revised Extinctions and Radii for 1.5 Million Stars, which was observed by APOGEE, GALAH, and RAVE surveys. I am not sure what those three terms mean. But I was intrigued by the number of 1.5 million.

1.5 million is the estimated number of children who were murdered during the Holocaust. Personally, I think that number is probably higher.

However, for this post, I will stick with the number of 1.5 million.

1.5 million futures never fulfilled.

1.5 million books never written

1.5 million voices silenced.

1.5 million innocent souls.

1.5 million products of love are murdered by hate.

1.5 million talents never explored.

1.5 million stars in heaven.

1.5 million children like Alexander Grijsaar, who was born in Amsterdam on 27 March 1940. He was murdered aged two on 16 August 1942 in Auschwitz.

This photo of Alexander was taken by Thea Citroen. In 1940 or 1941 she worked as a childcare worker in the Princess Juliana crèche in Warmoesstraat, Amsterdam. During her work, she photographed children and teachers and wrote their names on the back of the photos. The picture below was also taken by Thea.

Most of these children were also murdered.

Thea Citoen was born in Amsterdam on 10 November 1921. She was murdered in Auschwitz on 24 July 1942.

Next time when there is a clear sky I will look at those 1.5 million stars and say a prayer for all of them.





Heroes of the February Strike

The news of the 22 February 1941 raid of 427 Amsterdam Jews made a deep impression on the Amsterdam population. Out of solidarity with fellow-Jewish citizens and resentment of the Nazis’ actions in the capitol, a general strike, was announced for 25 February 1941.

The call, which came from several members of the illegally operating Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN), was spontaneously and massively heard. The strike spread to the Zaanstreek, Haarlem, Weesp, Hilversum and Utrecht.

The February Strike was the most extensive, open mass protest against the persecution of Jews in Europe. In total, at least 4,400 civil servants and work men from the municipality of Amsterdam took to the streets on 25-26 February in solidarity with the persecuted Jews in their city. The trams were standing still, and municipal services were not working. The strike spread to surrounding towns and other parts of the country, but then violence erupted from the Nazis.

Wille, Kraan

Willem Kraan worked in the Amsterdam Municipal Street Building Department, and his friend Piet Nak, who worked for the Sanitation Department, were active members of the Communist Party. On Sunday, 23 February 1941, they initiated a strike in protest against the Germans for the inhuman manner they treated the Jews. They approached as many working people as possible and asked them to strike on behalf of the Jews. The strike did not come off immediately. However, on a Monday evening, Piet made an inspiring speech at the Noordermarkt, and the next day all the services in Amsterdam and some in the neighbouring towns went on strike. It was the first time that non-Jews openly showed their concern for the plight of the Jews. The strike lasted two days before being put down by the Germans. Following the strike, the Germans made a supreme effort to apprehend the organizers, but their identities were never discovered. After a while, Piet was caught in connection with other illegal activities and brutally mistreated. Piet did not break, and when the Germans finally let him go he went temporarily into hiding. On 15 November 1941, Piet, Willem, and their friends were caught. Willem and 17 others were executed, but Piet was released and once again went into hiding. In May 1943, he was arrested and jailed for the third time. In June, he was freed, once again. However, the Germans had treated him so brutally that he was declared unfit for work and could never again hold a regular job. After the war, a bust of Willem Kraan was placed in a street that bore his name. On 31 May 1966, Yad Vashem recognized Wilhelmus Johannes Kraan and Piet Nak as Righteous Among the Nations.

Piet Nak

After the war, Piet Nak started a career as a magician and illusionist under the stage name Pietro Nakaro, also known as Nakaro the Magician. He also remained politically active and was involved in the establishment of the Amsterdam Vietnam Committee (later the Vietnam National Committee) and the Dutch Palestine Committee. In the 1950s, it came to a break with the Communist Party of the Netherlands, which, in his opinion, used the annual commemoration of the February strike for its political gain.

Eduard Carel Frederik Hellendoorn was a painter and Dutch resistance fighter. He was born on 29 November 1912 in Amsterdam. He studied the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten (Den Haag) (Royal Academy of Art, The Hague). In 1931 Hellendoorn married Johanna Maria Drayton Lee, with whom he had three children. The couple divorced in 1939. The 1939 exhibition at Amsterdam’s Rijksmuseum included Hellendoorn’s Onze Kunst van Heden (Our Art of Today).

In 1940 Hellendoorn joined the communist artists’ resistance. In 1941 he took part in the February strike. Subsequently, he was arrested and imprisoned in the Oranjehotel in Scheveningen Hellendoorn and executed on 13 March 1941 at Waalsdorpervlakte.

These were just a few of the heroes of the February strike. They make me proud to be a Dutchman.





Rosette Levie, 5-Years-Old—Murdered

Rosette Levie was deported to Sobibor in June 1943 from Vught via Westerbork on the so-called children’s transport

She was born in Amsterdam on 24 February 1938. She was murdered in Sobibor on 11 June 1943 at age five.

Dear Rosette, you never made it to your first school day.

You were denied your first bit of pocket money.

You were denied your first kiss.

You were denied your first dance.

I don’t know if you ever owned a bike, I doubt it because that would have been denied to you too.

You were denied a life.

I don’t see a threat to the nation in your eyes, yet there were some who did.

I see no potential for evil in your eyes, yet there were some who did. They were the ones who were evil.

You were one of 1.5 million children who were murdered by pure evil men and women.

Recently I heard a story about a pregnant woman who was shot. They managed to save her unborn baby, at least for a short while. Because when the Nazis found out that the baby was saved they killed not only that baby but all other babies that were hidden.

At least you had a few years, but that is just a meagre consolation.

Rest in peace little angel.

Margot Frank—The Forgotten Sister

We all know who Anne Frank is, as her diary is one of the most famous books ever published. But the story of her sister Margot is often overlooked. Margot Betti Frank was born in Frankfurt am Main on 16 February 1926.

Margot also kept a diary but that was never found. But we do know details about her via Anne’s diary and also via letters she sent to pen pals. Margot was 3 years older than Anne so she clearly must have been more aware of what was happening in the world around her.In her second year at secondary school, her English teacher made contact with students in the US. Margot started corresponding with Betty Ann Wagner. Her letter of 27 April 1940 shows that she was aware of the threat of war, “We often listen to the radio, for these are stressful times. We never feel safe because we border directly on Germany and we are only a small country.” Because of the German invasion, two weeks later, this would remain the only letter she sent. Margot’s deportation order from the Gestapo is what hastened the Frank family into hiding, according to Anne’s diary.

Anne wrote of her in her diary on 27 September 1942, “Margot doesn’t need any upbringing, since she’s naturally good, kind and clever, perfection itself.”

Margot was 16 years old when she and her family went into hiding. Just a year younger than my daughter is now, Like my Daughter, Margot, had rowing as a hobby. Margot was a member of the “Society for the Promotion of Water Sports Among Young People,” and her club, near the Berlage Bridge, was a short bicycle ride from the Frank family apartment in the River Quarter. Two photos released by the Anne Frank House two years ago show a side of Margot rarely seen, that of an athlete heartily laughing with her Dutch teammates during practice.

The photos were taken during the summer of 1941 and show Margot with her rowing team on the Amstel River, from which Amsterdam derives its name. In one photo she is featured prominently, while the other is a wide-angle shot of the team in two boats.

Margot Frank (right) with her Amsterdam rowing team in 1941; photo altered to spotlight Margot
Margot Frank—outer boat, in black top behind the rower in white—on the Amstel River in Amsterdam during the summer of 1941

The photos taken by Margot’s gym and rowing coach, Roos van Gelder, showed the team and included Jewish and non-Jewish girls until Jews were banned from water sports in the fall. Because she too was Jewish, van Gelder could no longer coach sports, and the non-Jewish team members showed solidarity by quitting, according to the museum.

On 8 September 1940, Margot and her three teammates won first prize in a rowing match in Zaandam for style rowing.

Margot Frank and the others hiding in the secret annexe were arrested by the Gestapo on 4 August 1944 and detained in their headquarters overnight before being taken to a cell in a nearby prison for three days. According to Victor Kugler (one of the people who helped the Frank family), while being arrested, Margot was weeping silently. They were transported by train on 8 August to the Dutch Westerbork Transit Camp. They remained at the camp until the selection for Westerbork’s last deportation to Auschwitz on 3 September 1944.

In Auschwitz-Birkenau, Margot and the other prisoners were forced to cut sods or carry stones. The camp Nazi commander regularly organized selections: those who were deemed fit for work by the Nazi doctors were deported to Nazi Germany, while the sick or seriously weakened prisoners were murdered in the gas chambers. Margot and Anne were part of a group that was put on the train to the Bergen-Belsen Concentration Camp on the night of 1 November 1944. After a horrific journey, they arrived in the overcrowded camp. The conditions in Bergen-Belsen were terrible. There was little food and poor personal hygiene. Infectious diseases broke out. Margot and Anne became infected with spotted typhus. Rachel van Amerongen-Frankfoorder, a fellow prisoner, would later recall, “They had those hollowed-out faces, skin and bone…You could see both of them dying, as well as others.” Margot Frank, like her sister Anne, succumbed to spotted typhus in February 1945. Two months after their death, British soldiers liberated the camp.

Today would have been Margot’s 97th birthday

A few years ago, I was asked to speak as a representative of the parents’ council at the graduation night of my oldest son. I ended the speech with a quote from Margot Frank:
“Times change, people change, thoughts about good and evil change, about true and false. But what always remains fast and steady is the affection that your friends feel for you, those who always have your best interest at heart.”






Gerrit Kleerekoper—Gold Medalist Coach, Murdered in Sobibor

Below is a press cutting from the 1928 Amsterdam Olympic Games.

“Everything was taken care of down to the last detail. Nice practice material—not too heavy—logically composed, neatly executed in class, wonderful order and leadership, in one word sublime. …The jury was also enthusiastic and awarded the Kleerekoper corps a total score of 316.75 points, leaving the other teams far behind. With their well-deserved success, the gymnasts were the first female Olympic champions in the Netherlands. At a quarter past five, the Dutch flag fluttered above the Olympic Stadium and the National Anthem sounded over the central area. However, the cheers rose when HRH Prince Hendrik stepped forward and shook hands with each of the participants. …and then they, our ladies, to whom we owe the first victory, disappeared under the grandstand to their dressing rooms”

In 1928, Amsterdam hosted the Olympic Games. This was the first time that women were competing in the field of gymnastics. Five women on the Dutch Olympic gymnastics team were Jewish: Helena-Lea Nordheim, Ans Polak, Estella-Stella Agsteribbe, Judikje-Judik Simons and Elka de Levie. The team’s trainer, Gerrit Kleerekoper, was also Jewish. The team won the gold medal for women’s gymnastics at the Amsterdam Olympics, and the women became national heroines. In just over 16 years later all but one would be murdered. Elka de Levie survived the Holocaust and died in 1979.

Front row, from left: W.E. Zandvliet, Nel van Randwijk, Lea Nordheim, Ans Polak, Stella Agsteribbe, Riek van Rumt.Back row, from left: Alie van der Bos, unknown, unknown, unknown, Elka de Levie

Kleerekoper’s team scored 316.75 points, defeating Italy and the United Kingdom.

Gerrit Kleerekoper was born in Amsterdam on 15 February 1897 was originally a diamond cutter, by trade, but earned his money as a gymnastics teacher at the Jewish Lyceum at the Amsterdam Stadstimmertuinen. In his spare time, he was a trainer at the gymnastics association Bato, which consisted almost entirely of Jewish members. In 1926 he organized the first women’s gymnastics championship in Amsterdam.

On 28 May 1919, Gerrit Kleerekoper married Kaatje Ossedrijver, together they had two children: Leendert on 15 January 1923, and Elisabeth on 14 October 1928, the year in which the gymnasts trained by Kleerekoper won gold at the Olympic Games. In preparation for the Olympic Games, from June 1928 he had his pupils conduct outdoor training sessions on Wednesday evenings and Sunday mornings to get used to the changing weather conditions.

A few years after the games, Gerrit Kleerekoper provided a daily gymnastics session on the radio. Early in the morning, at a quarter to seven, the VARA broadcasted its program with physical exercises. The session started with the question, “Listeners, are you all ready?” accompanied by a piano from the studio. He then had his audience perform bending and stretching exercises in their living rooms.

At the beginning of the war, a drama took place in the Kleerekoper family. After the Dutch capitulation on May 15, 1940, Gerrit’s sister Mina and her husband Louis Judels decided, together with their children Mia and Bert, to take their own lives on this day. In July, Gerrit wrote a letter about this to his brother Herman, who was a biologist in Sao Paolo:

“Dear Herman, Co and Children, On behalf of Dad and Mom and the family, I have the difficult task of informing you of the difficult days we have spent here and the great sadness we have to deal with. Under the circumstances, you must not have dared to hope for good news. However, the blow that has struck us all is heavier than we and you will have expected. In the first days of the war and immediately after the surrender, many people experienced great fear. Our dear sister Mina with Louis and both children preferred a gentle death to life in fear of the future. During the nights of 15–16 May, they left us. You understand that much writing is not possible at this time. The condition of all of us and Pa and Ma is pretty good considering the circumstances. We must now hold our heads together. We also wish you strength and health. You Gerrit.£

In November 1942 Gerrit, Kaatje and Elisabeth were forced to leave their house at 94 Rivierenlaan. In the last months before their deportation, the family lived at Transvaalstraat 136. On 20 June 1943, at nine o’clock in the evening, they were taken from their home. With their luggage, they walked to Krugerplein from where an overcrowded tram took them to Muiderpoort station. Because of the crowds, they struggled in the tunnel for about an hour to get into the hall. By now it was midnight. On the platform, they had to hand in their house keys to an official. After another hour of waiting, the train appeared and at 2 a.m. they were crammed into a boxcar with 53 others. Fresh air came in through a small crack. In the utterly dark Kaatje wrote a message with a pencil to her sister-in-law, “We are in a freight car and have not left yet. The mood here is perfect. I hope you can read this. We are sitting on the floor with Z. It’s probably a quarter past two. We’re sitting with a candle and I can’t see what I’m writing. Now Trien and Leo, a bunch of Ger, Ka, Elly”.

At five o’clock the train arrived at Zwolle and Gerrit wrote another postcard: “We hope to see each other again soon”. Before they could be registered in Westerbork, it was eight o’clock in the morning and the “scorching hot sun” was already burning above their heads.

Ten days later, on 30 June 1943, the names of Gerrit, Kaatje and Elly Kleerekoper were on the transport list. Daughter Elisabeth wrote to her Aunt Trien, “We have already packed everything for the transport. You can take a bread bag, blanket and handbag with you. The train is already there, almost cleaned. We don’t know where we are going. Maybe we won’t go at all tonight. At least I’m not afraid of it. But if something happens, you have to be strong. I saved the oatmeal cookies and rye bread to eat on the train”. Just before folding the letter, Elisabeth added a quick note to the bottom of the letter, “Left on Tuesday.”

On 2 July 1943, Gerrit Kleerekoper, along with his wife Kaatje and their fourteen-year-old daughter Elisabeth, were murdered by the Nazis at the Sobibór extermination camp. Leendert Kleerekoper had arrived in camp Westerbork more than two months before his parents and sister, that was on 13 April 1943. His registration card states that he had no religion. Leendert was an electrical engineer. His profession ensured that he was sent to camp Vught on 17 May 1943, and was placed with the Philips command. He was murdered in Auschwitz in July 1944 by exhaustion.









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The Despicable Act of Amsterdam’s City Cinema

Amsterdam City Bioscoop (cinema) is probably one of the finest film houses in the Netherlands, if not Europe. In 1995 it was bought by the Pathé Cinema Group and is since known as Pathé City. But it has one black page in its long history.

The Nazi regime in the Netherlands had passed legislation that the Jewish population was no longer allowed in cinemas starting on 8 January 1941. On 2 January 1941. The City Cinema was the first, for its own accord, to place the ‘Prohibited to Jews’ signs a week before the ordinance came into effect.


Restricted Education

The right to education is one of the most fundamental human rights. In August 1941 the Nazis passed a law to set up schools for Jewish students and teachers only in the Netherlands.

The picture above is of Jewish students of the school on Cliffordstraat, Amsterdam West. A class of 10 students, with teacher Goubitz.The municipality opened one school for these very scattered children, in the Staatsliedenbuurt, on Cliffordstraat at number 36, in a school building that was no longer in use. It was quite eccentric to the other western neighbourhoods of the city.

At the end of September 1941, when that Jewish school No. 14 opened, only 56 children showed up. The Education Department had probably assumed a larger turnout, three classes had been formed with two teachers plus the head Mozes Goubitz, who came from the Corantijnschool near the Surinameplein.

Given the enormous distances some children would have to walk every day, it is likely that many parents simply kept their children at home from September 1941 onwards. There was compulsory education, also for Jewish children, but supervision failed.
Abel Herzberg wrote in his Chronicle of the Persecution of the Jews “Sometimes a child had to walk an hour or more from home to school. After all, trams and bicycles were forbidden. Sometimes a handcart from the Jewish Council collected the heavy schoolbags from the houses.”
When it was handed over to the Education Office of the Joodsche Raad in December 1942, this small school did not escape the austerity reorganization. At that time there were only 25 pupils and that did not require 3 teachers; it became a one-class school, which, despite attempts to find accommodation elsewhere, remained located in the school building on Cliffordstraat; closing off the rest of the building. That lasted until the end of May 1943; West was also not spared by the occupier during the major raids, so almost no children showed up in the last week of May. The education board also closed this school on May 31; headmaster Mozes Goubitz had already been succeeded by Gerrit van Praag, who immediately went into hiding in those days.

Master Jakob Druijf, who lived in West and was unemployed when school no. 1 at the Oude Schans was closed, took the handful of children that were still there under his wing, at his home in the Jan van Galenstraat.
His name and his class of 10 students are still mentioned in the last report of the board of Jewish education, dated August 23, 1943.

In the summer of 1942, Mozes Goubitz went into hiding. After the war, he returns to the Postjesbuurt and to the Corantijn School where he resumed his duties as a teacher. He died on 21 March 1991 in Malaga, Spain.

I don’t know what happened to the children but I am certain most of them were murdered.


The Treatment of Dutch Jews During World War II

It would be very easy for me to say that Dutch Jews, and those who fled Germany and Austria, were badly treated by the Germans in the Netherlands during World War II. To a great extent that would be true, but the Germans were helped by a great number of Dutch. One thing I have often said before and what is very important to understand is, that not all Germans were Nazis, and not all Nazis were German.

Many Dutch were complacent whilst their Jewish friends, colleagues and sometimes family, were persecuted and murdered. Often this complacency was born out of fear. On the other hand, there were many who were only too eager to please their new “Lords.” They would put up signs like the one above saying “Restricted movement for Jews.” For the rest of the population that should have been a sign. It went against everything the Dutch society was known for, yet so little was done against it.

Below are a few more examples.

In the bottom right corner of the window a small sign saying “Forbidden to Jews.”

Vondel Park is one of the most beautiful parks in Amsterdam, during the war Jews were not allowed to enter.

Amsterdam Jews were being rounded up and no one resisted it.


Children Murdered on December 11, 1942

I find it increasingly difficult to write about the murdered children of the Holocaust. 1.5 million innocent souls who are now 1.5 million stars in the sky. This post will have the raw data of some children murdered on this day 80 years ago. But just the raw data should send shivers down your spine.

Pictured above:

Left: Alexander Katwijk was born in Amsterdam on 30 December 1934 and was murdered in Auschwitz on 11 December 1942. He had reached the age of seven.
Middle: Marianna Katwijk was born in Amsterdam on 26 January 1937. She was murdered in Auschwitz on 11 December 1942. She had reached the age of five.
Right: Elisabeth Katwijk was born in Amsterdam on 19 October 1939 and was murdered at Auschwitz on 11 December 1942 at the age of three.

Above: Bettje van Delft was born in Sappemeer, the Netherlands, on 1 February 1942. She was murdered in Auschwitz on 11 December 1942. She died at the age 10-months.

Above: [The young boy on the left] Edgar Morris Lindenfeld was born in Amsterdam on 26 August 1935 and murdered in Monowitz on 11 December 1942. He reached the age of seven. [The young girl on the right] Marion Lindenfeld was born on 2 March 1933 in Braunschweig, Germany. She was nine when she was murdered in Monowitz on 11 December 1942.

Above: Floor Spreekmeester was born in Amsterdam on 9 May 1931. She was murdered in Auschwitz on 11 December 1942 at the age of 11.

Below: This is a class photo of Floor with her classmates. Very few, if any, will have survived the Holocaust.

Floor’s name also appeared on an obituary page of the Dutch State Newspaper. I don’t know when it was published. I can only presume it was after the war. Look at the number of people on the page—they were all murdered during the Holocaust. Just one page from one newspaper from one country. Just let that sink in. Yet to this day—there are still those who say it never happened.




Rechtzaak voor een verrader

Ik weet niet welke straf Mevrouw C. uit Amsterdam kreeg, ik ga er vanuit dat ze de doodstraf kreeg.

Het gaat ook over een van de zovele zelfmoorden tijdens de Shoah, waar zo weinig over gesprokem word.

-Aanklacht, Beschuldiging en Veroordeling van Mevrouw C. uit de Blasiusstraat in Amsterdam, die zich met anderen bezig hield met het verraden van Joodse gezinnen, waaronder het gezin van Michel Gompers en Bertha Vogel.-

“De aangeklaagde Mevrouw C. werd er van beschuldigd dat zij, Nederlandse zijnde, tijdens de vijandelijke bezetting van het Rijk in Europa:

A: In het algemeen blijk heeft gegeven van nationaalsocialistische gezindheid door in of omstreeks 1944 te zijn toegetreden als lid van de Nederlandse Volksdienst; NSB raambiljetten voor de ramen van haar woning te hebben gehad alsmede NSB vergaderingen te hebben bezocht en de bladen Volk en Vaderland en De Daad te hebben gelezen.

B: In of omstreeks 1943 M. Gompers en diens echtgenote en B. Vogel, een Joodse familie, heeft blootgesteld aan aanhouding of vrijheidsbeperking door of vanwege de vijand, door aan de Duitse Politie herhaaldelijk t.a.v. beide personen inlichtingen en aanwijzingen te hebben verstrekt, ten gevolge waarvan zij beide op of omstreeks 9 Augustus 1943 door beambten van de SD zijn aangehouden, waardoor zij hulp en steun heeft verleend aan de vijand; op grond van welk handelen zij geacht moet worden zich doelbewust te hebben gedragen in strijd met de belangen van het Nederlandse volk.

De getuigenis van M. Gompers, zoals opgetekend in het proces verbaal opgemaakt d.d. 4 Maart 1946, door twee agenten van politie der Gemeente Amsterdam, luidde: Tijdens de grote Jodenrazzia in Juni 1943 kwamen de Duitsers ook aan mijn woning in de Blasiusstraat te Amsterdam. Mijn vrouw en ik werden toen niet aangehouden, omdat mijn vrouw een bewijs van Dr. Peeters kon overleggen, waarin stond dat zij draagster van typhusbacillen was. Ik heb toen vanuit mijn woning gezien en gehoord, dat Mevrouw C. tegen een der Duitse officieren zeide: “die vrouw is niet ziek, zij loopt altijd buiten”, waarop die Duitser is het Duits zeide: “daar heb je niets mee te maken, wat ik doe is goed”. Ik hoorde toen dat Mevrouw C. tegen de omstanders zei: “we gaan morgen naar de Euterpestraa”. De volgende dag kwamen er inderdaad twee mannen, die zeiden, dat ze van de SD waren. Zij hebben ons, nadat wij de verklaring van Dr. Peeters getoond hadden, echter niet medegenomen. Op 9 Augustus 1943 ben ik des avonds in mijn woning tesamen met mijn vrouw ondanks de verklaring van Dr. Peeters aangehouden door twee SD-ers en vervolgens overgebracht naar de Euterpestraat. Mijn vrouw en ik zijn kort daarop via de Hollandse Schouwburg overgebracht naar het Joods Ziekenhuis. Mijn vrouw heeft, naar ik later vernam, tijdens haar transport naar Westerbork zelfmoord gepleegd, door vergif in te nemen. Op 19 September 1943 kreeg ik bericht van haar overlijden; zelf heb ik uit het ziekenhuis kunnen ontkomen.

Zelf heeft Mevrouw C. ter zitting onder meer het volgende verklaard:

Ik heb in 1943 tijdens een razzia op Joden in de straat waar ik woonde tegen de Duitse politie gezegd: “De goede Joden halen jullie weg en de krengen laten jullie zitten”, ik wees daarbij in de richting van het huis van de familie M. Gompers. Ik leefde in onmin met de familie Gompers, omdat mijn kinderen, die naar de Oostmark waren geweest, dikwijls in de buurt geplaagd werden. Ik kon het voorts niet hebben, dat vele Joden waarmee ik op goeden voet leefde werden gearresteerd en weggehaald, terwijl de familie Gompers zich voortdurend aan arrestatie wist te onttrekken. Ik heb toen tijdens de bovenvermelde razzia de aandacht van de Duitse politie op de familie Gompers gevestigd. Bij die razzia is de familie Gompers niet aangehouden. Gompers en diens echtgenote B. Vogel zijn eerst enige tijd later door de Duitsers weggehaald. De getuigenverklaringen zijn ongunstig voor mij, omdat men in de buurt een hekel aan mij had; daar mijn kinderen veelvuldigd geplaagd werden, dreigde ik nog al eens met de Duitse politie, zonder evenwel mijn dreigement uit te voeren…….

Uitspraak, Veroordeling en Vonnis gewezen op 9 September 1947, waarbij de beschuldigde wordt schuldig verklaard aan het hier voren genoemde wat bewezen wordt verklaard en legt de navolgende maatregelen aan de beschuldigde op:

1): internering waarbij in overweging gegeven wordt de tijdsduur daarvan te beperken tot vier jaren en daarop in mindering te brengen de door de beschuldigde vanaf 8 Juni 1945 in voorinternering doorgebrachte tijd, zodat internering behoort te eindigen op 8 Juni 1949.

2): Ontzetting van het recht van kiezen en verkiesbaarheid bij krachtens wettelijk voorschrift uitgeschreven verkiezingen.

Bepaalt voorzoveel nodig dat het beheer over het vermogen van de beschuldigde een einde zal nemen binnen drie maanden natat de interneren is beëindigd.”