Two Realities in Auschwitz

I can’t think of any place on earth that was more evil than Auschwitz, although other camps that had perhaps more cruelty, But it is the scale of the cruelty, torture and murder that makes Auschwitz pure evil, a literal hell on earth. The picture above is of Yisrael and Zelig Jacob, the younger brothers of Lili Jacob. They were both murdered in Auschwitz.

Below is a photograph of Jewish women and children deported from Hungary, separated from the men, line up for selection. Auschwitz camp, Poland, May 1944. Their reality was death.

However, some who had a completely different reality. They could enjoy themselves after a day’s work. They could relax in Solahütte a little-known resort in Poland for the Nazi German guards, administrators, and auxiliary personnel of the Auschwitz/Birkenau/Buna facilities during the Holocaust. Although postcards of the era sent by German staff sometimes bore the mysterious pre-printed return address “SS Hütte Soletal” [Solahütte], the rustic hamlet remained largely unknown to historians until 2007, when the Höcker Album of memorabilia owned by SS officer Karl-Friedrich Höcker including vintage Auschwitz photographs was donated to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, which then released images from the album online for study. Some of the photographs identified Solahütte for the first time.

Nazi officers and female Auschwitz staff gleefully pose on a wooden bridge at Solahütte.

Members of the SS female auxiliaries sit on a fence railing in Solahütte as Höcker passes out bowls of blueberries.

This to me is probably the most incomprehensible aspect of the Holocaust. How could human beings enjoy themselves knowing about the evil that was committed in their names and often by themselves? Maybe I am just wrong in thinking of them as human beings.

sources

https://allthatsinteresting.com/karl-hocker-auschwitz-photos#1

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/photo/nazi-ceremony-in-auschwitz-birkenau

https://www.yadvashem.org/yv/en/exhibitions/album_auschwitz/lili-jacob.asp

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/photo/jewish-women-and-children-upon-arrival-in-auschwitz?parent=en%2F10897

Etty Hillesum—Murdered Beauty

At first, I was reluctant to use the word beauty in the title because we now live in an era where some people might find that offensive, and they will scream about it. I pity them because they lose out on so much.

Etty Hillesum was a beauty in every sense of the word. It may have been too much for the Nazis because they murdered her. She was murdered on November 30, 1943, in Auschwitz according to data from the Red Cross.

Etty (or Esther) was the daughter of Levie Hillesum and Riva Bernstein. She was born on January 15, 1914, in Middelburg in the Dutch province of Zeeland. In 1932 she moved to Amsterdam to study law and Slavic languages. In Amsterdam, she met Julius Spier. He became her teacher and great love. During the war, she worked for the Jewish Council at Camp Westerbork and other places. She wrote several letters from Westerbork and kept a diary.

In March 1937 she took a room at 6 Gabriel Metsustraat in south Amsterdam in the house of an accountant Hendrik (Han) Wegerif, a widower aged 62 who hired her as a housekeeper. He also began an affair with her. She lived in this house until her final departure for Westerbork in 1942, and it was in her room there that much of her diary was written. The small community of people who shared the house with her were important to her. In addition to Han Wegerif, there was his 21-year-old son Hans, a German cook named Kathe, a student Bernard Meylink, and a nurse, Maria Tuinzing, who became one of Etty’s close friends.

The most important relationship of the diary is with the psychochirologist (hand reader) Julius Spier. Born in 1887 in Germany, he had come to Amsterdam in 1939. Spier had worked in Zurich with Jung, who had encouraged him to develop his skill in chirology, the practice of psychoanalysis through the reading of people’s palms. He was a gifted and charismatic figure and gathered around him a group of students, particularly women. Etty became part of this group and went into therapy with Spier, developing a close relationship with him and becoming his secretary.

Etty was an intensely alive and sexual young woman, yet she felt plagued by what she called her ‘confounded eroticism”. But what healthy woman in her 20s isn’t interested in sex?

In 1942 she was given a position in the cultural affairs department of the Jewish Council. She worked there for only two weeks, which she calls hell in her diary. In August 1942, she received a call for deportation to Westerbork. Etty left and continued her social activities in Westerbork. As a member of the Jewish Council, she had a special travel visa that allowed her to return to Amsterdam many times before being deported with her family on September 7, 1943.

Just as Anne Frank also wrote a diary, which was released after the war, titled, “An Interrupted Life,” I’ve chosen a few quotes from the diary. The words are profoundly sad but also beautiful and with a sense of hope.

“Ultimately, we have just one moral duty: to reclaim large areas of peace in ourselves, more and more peace, and to reflect it toward others. And the more peace there is in us, the more peace there will also be in our troubled world.”

“Each of us must turn inward and destroy in himself all that he thinks he ought to destroy in others”

“As life becomes harder and more threatening, it also becomes richer, because the fewer expectations we have, the more good things of life become unexpected gifts that we accept with gratitude.”

“Sometimes my day is crammed full of people and talk and yet I have the feeling of living in utter peace and quiet. And the tree outside my window, in the evenings, is a greater experience than all those people put together.”

“My immediate reaction on meeting a man is invariably to gauge his sexual possibilities. I recognize this as a bad habit that must be stamped out”

“Yes, we women, we foolish, idiotic, illogical women, we all seek Paradise and the Absolute. And yet my brain, my capable brain, tells me that there are no absolutes, that everything is relative, endlessly diverse, and in eternal motion, and it is precisely for that reason that life is so exciting and fascinating, but also so very, very painful. We [women] want to perpetuate ourselves in a man.”

“I don’t want to be anything special. I only want to try to be true to that in me which seeks to fulfil its promise.”

“I know and share the many sorrows a human being can experience, but I do not cling to them; they pass through me, like life itself, as a broad eternal stream…and life continues…”

“By ‘coming to terms with life’ I mean: the reality of death has become a definite part of my life; my life has, so to speak, been extended by death, by my looking death in the eye and accepting it, by accepting destruction as part of life and no longer wasting my energies on fear of death or the refusal to acknowledge its inevitability. It sounds paradoxical: by excluding death from our life we cannot live a full life, and by admitting death into our life we enlarge and enrich it.”

sources

https://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/61163.Etty_Hillesum

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/136401/esther-hillesum

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/227368/julius-philipp-spier

https://www.lastampa.it/vatican-insider/en/2018/11/26/news/etty-hillesum-the-woman-who-found-god-during-the-shoah-1.34063034

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There Are No Answers, Just More Questions

For several years I have been on a quest to find answers, initially about the death of my Grandfather, but also about why the Holocaust happened.

In the case of my Grandfather, I have found something like an answer, or at least something I can live with.

However when it comes to the Holocaust I have discovered there are no answers, just more questions. The picture above is of the Cordoza and Abas families.

Only the 3 youngest boys survived, The other 13 people were murdered. Among them was Sara Abigael Cardozo born in Amsterdam on 29 November 1937. He was murdered in Auschwitz on 21 October 1944 at the age of six.

Below is a picture of Friedreich Josef Bier. He was born in
Düsseldorf on 22 September 1927 and murdered in Bergen-Belsen on 29 November 1944. He reached the age of 17 years. He was the son of Julius Bier and Berta Bier-Lewin. I share my birthday with his mother Berta. Friedrich’s siblings survived.

I don’t understand the hate, the randomness of the murders. Why children? I know that especially Himmler spread the lie that the children would take revenge. But did that happen after any war where the children would take revenge for the death of their parents on a large scale?

Another thing that I can’t understand is why so many stood by and did nothing. For fear? Allegedly Hitler told one of his inner circle that the world stood by when the Armenian Genocide took place and did nothing. He reckoned it would be the same with the genocide of the Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals and so many others.

Why are there still today [November 29, 2022] people saying that the Holocaust never happened?

Finishing up with a poem by Martin Niemöller as a reminder that the hate and ignorance that caused the Holocaust have not gone away, it is merely lurking in the shadows waiting for the time to strike again. There are no answers just more questions, but that doesn’t mean I will stop looking.

First they came for the socialists, and I did not speak out—because I was not a socialist.

Then they came for the trade unionists, and I did not speak out—because I was not a trade unionist.

Then they came for the Jews, and I did not speak out—because I was not a Jew.

Then they came for me—and there was no one left to speak for me.

—Martin Niemöller

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/29821/friedreich-josef-bier

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/151023/sara-abigael-cardozo

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/martin-niemoeller-first-they-came-for-the-socialists


Just Three Names of the 1.5 Million

Sometimes I feel like just giving up posting about the Holocaust, but I know I can’t.

It is not always the images that upset me, more often it is that lack of images that gets to me. There are no images because the victims were just too young and were born in captivity, so there were no facilities to have a baby portrait taken. Parents could not show off their beautiful angels to friends and families.

These are just three names, with three connections and one fate.

Leo Jack Mathijse: Born in Amsterdam on 26 November 1942. Murdered in Auschwitz on 27 August 1943. He reached the age of nine months.

Max Jack Stern: Born in The Hague on 26 November 1942. Murdered in Sobibor on 5 March 1943. He reached the age of three months.

Roosje Gobets: Born in Amsterdam on 26 November 1942. Murdered in Sobibor on 2 April 1943. She reached the age of four months.

The connection—all were born this day 80 years ago. They were born under occupation, and all were in Westerbork at some stage.

The one fate; they were all murdered before they were one year old.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/164272/leo-jack-mathijse

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/219765/max-jack-stern

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/204362/roosje-gobets

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/thema/Kamp%20Westerbork?Foto%27s=2

The Most Beautiful Time of Life—A Song From Auschwitz

I don’t believe people who say that they don’t like music. They might not like certain types of music, but everyone loves at least one bit of music. Without music, life would be boring.

I am always amazed by the amounts of tunes and songs that are composed by using only eight notes or less. The music scale is made up of eight notes. All of these notes may have a variation in a minor or major scale, but technically there are only eight notes or octaves.

But music is so much more than a series of notes put together. It is the fabric of the soul of human nature. A piece of music can evoke so many emotions, varying from joy and laughter to fear and anger. So if you deny yourself music you deny yourself emotional well-being.

The saying goes “Music soothes the savage beast” and never in mankind’s history was there more savagery than during the Holocaust. Yet there were some who despite all the horrors they witnessed on a daily basis and were still able to compose music and even a joyous foxtrot. And yes I do realize that using the term foxtrot in the context of the Holocaust is, to say the least, bizarre. I know that some people will criticise me for the title of this post. They will see it and will not bother to read any further. I did not make up the title, it is the translation of a song written in Auschwitz Birkenau Die schönste Zeit des Lebens—The Most Beautiful Time of Life.”

Patricia Hall, a professor of music theory at the University of Michigan, has been researching musical manuscripts for the past 40 years. She knew that the Auschwitz-Birkenau museum kept music in its archive, and had heard from a scholar at the museum that some of the documents might include penciled annotations. So in 2016, Hall decided to travel to Poland to explore the archive herself. She was amazed to find several handwritten manuscripts, one of which struck her as particularly poignant due to the cruel irony of its cheerful title: “The Most Beautiful Time of Life.”

Originally a 1941 popular song composed by the German film composer Franz Grothe with a text by Willi Dehmel, “Die schönste Zeit des Lebens” has been arranged for a small ensemble of fourteen instruments: four first violins, five second-violins, a viola, two clarinets, a trombone, and a tuba.

Three prisoners had penned the manuscript, adapting Grothe’s music to suit 14 musical instruments: nine violins, a viola, a tuba, a trombone, and two clarinets. Although the prisoners didn’t compose the songs, they had to arrange them so they could be played by the available instruments and musicians.

Hall suspects the piece was played during one of the regular Sunday concerts in front of the villa of Rudolf Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz.

Patricia Hall explained “This was for the SS personnel, It was about a three-hour concert that was broken up into stages, and at one point, they had a dance band so that soldiers could dance. Given the instrumentation of this foxtrot, I think that’s probably what it was used for.”

Based on the prisoner numbers on the manuscript, Hall could identify two of the three arrangers: Antoni Gargul, who was released in 1943, and Maksymilian Pilat, released in 1945 and later performed in the Gdansk Symphony Orchestra. They were Polish political prisoners.

Prisoner photo of Antoni Gargul, number 5665. Archive of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.

While survivors said that the musicians received more food, had clean clothes, and were spared the hardest labor, the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum director Piotr M. A. Cywinski recently said in a statement that they experienced “an element of humiliation and terror.”

Patricia Hall said, “They weren’t immune to the greatest horrors of the camp…. We like to think of a narrative in which the musicians were saved because they had that ability to play instruments.”

“However, it’s been documented by another prisoner [in an orchestra] that around 50 of them…were taken out and shot.”

Survivor Coco Schumann said after the war :

“The music could save you: if not your life, then at least the day. The images that I saw every day were impossible to live with, and yet we held on. We played music to them, for our basic survival. We made music in hell.”

“Die schönste Zeit des Lebens” is a song about falling in love in the month of May, when “a mysterious magic lies in the air! The world is full of music and tender fragrance.” Like many of the other popular songs in the archive of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, it describes an atmosphere about as far from a concentration camp as one could imagine. Here is the complete text of the song:

“Die schönste Zeit des Lebens beginnt im Monat Mai:
Die Welt ist voll Musik und zärtlichem Duft!
Wer dann nicht ganz aus Stein ist, verliert sein Herz dabei:
Ein rätselhafter Zauber liegt in der Luft!
Und aus manchen kürzen schönen Sekunden
werden viele lange glückliche Stunden!
Die schönste Zeit des Lebens beginnt im Monat Mai;
doch wann sie für uns enden soll, bestimmen nur wir zwei!”


“The most beautiful time of life begins in the month of May:
The world is filled with music and tender fragrance.
Whoever isn’t then made completely of stone loses his heart thereby:
Mysterious magic lies in the air!
And many short, delightful seconds,
become many long, happy hours!
The most beautiful time of life begins in the month of May;
However, when it should end for us, only we decide.”

Music was also used in very sinister ways, Primo Levi once said:

“And for the first time, since I entered the camp the reveille catches me in a deep sleep and its ringing is a return from nothingness. As the bread is distributed, one can hear, far from the windows, in the dark air, the band beginning to play; the healthy comrades are leaving in squads for work. One cannot hear the music well from Ka-Be [Krankenbau or inmate infirmary]. The beating of the big drums and the cymbals reaches us continuously and monotonously, but on this weft, the musical phrases weave a pattern only intermittently, according to the caprices of the wind. We all look at each other from our beds, because we all feel that this music is infernal. The tunes are few, a dozen, the same ones every day, morning and evening: marches and popular songs dear to every German. They lie engraved on our minds and will be the last thing in Lager that we shall forget; they are the voice of the Lager, the perceptible expression of its geometrical madness, of the resolution of others to annihilate us, first as men in order to kill us more slowly afterward. When this music plays, we know that our comrades, out in the fog, are marching like automatons; their souls are dead and the music drives them, like the wind drives dead leaves, and takes the place of their wills”

Survivor Franz Danimann recalled how the Leonore overture from Beethoven’s Fidelio, performed by the official band during roll call in the summer of 1943, strengthened his will to survive:

“I was aware of the similarity of our situation to Florestan’s in the last act. He should have died as a witness to Pizarro’s misdeeds, just as the SS pursued the destruction of the prisoners. But the music warned us not to despair and lose hope.”

The SS also tolerated a swing band, as it provided an opportunity for them to hear music that was banned. At these clandestine concerts, officers would reward musicians with liquor or cigarettes. There are also reports of a separate jazz band that played exclusively at SS orgies and drinking parties.

The original composer of the music of “Die schönste Zeit des Lebens” Franz Grothe was a German composer, mainly for the cinema. His musicals were outstanding successes. He was required to be a member of the Nazi party (No. 2.580.427) from 1933 and remained opposed to de-Nazification after the war.

Finishing this post with the music of “Die schönste Zeit des Lebens”

sources.

https://holocaustmusic.ort.org/places/camps/death-camps/auschwitz/

https://holocaustmusic.ort.org/places/camps/death-camps/auschwitz/camp-orchestras/

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/reconstructing-music-auschwitz-orchestra-180970915/

https://www.mlive.com/news/erry-2018/11/c224aea86a578/um-professor-students-bring-ra.html

https://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/mp/9460447.0015.101/–irony-and-identity-music-manuscripts-from-the-auschwitz?rgn=main;view=fulltext

https://www.timesofisrael.com/after-2-years-of-detective-work-academic-unearths-inmates-music-from-auschwitz/

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Improvised Wedding Photo

I remember when I was getting married, one of the aspects that needed to be perfect was photography. It was going to be a special day and the photographs needed to reflect that.

But what do you do when your every move is watched and you are seen as an enemy of the state? You have watched so many being arrested and deported. The last thing you want to do is to draw attention to yourself.

Gustaaf van der Wijk and Mina van der Wijk-de Vries got married on August 17, 1942. On that day wedding photos were taken in Amsterdam under improvised circumstances.

The Dutch Jews had been subjected to a great number of restrictions, these are just some of them.

On January 7, 1941, the Dutch Cinema Association decided that Jews would no longer be allowed access to cinemas. On January 12, 1941, this measure is published in the newspapers.

The Registration of Jewish Residents was Ordinance no. 6/1941 of Reichskommissar Seyss-Inquart, issued on January 10, 1941. It obliged all Jewish residents of the Netherlands to register with the Population Register, which cost one guilder. Those who refused to do so could be imprisoned for up to five years. Moreover, this information was already known to the Jewish municipalities and the population register.

From September 1, 1941, Jewish children had to go to separate schools and were no longer allowed to go to public schools. In Amsterdam, this applied from 1 October 1941.

The Compulsory Star of David was introduced on 3 May 1942 and required all Jews over the age of six to wear the Star of David. It had to be worn visibly at chest height. The star was distributed by the Jewish Council and cost 4 cents each.

As for the newlyweds Gustaaf van der Wijk and Mina van der Wijk-de Vries. Mina was born in Leiden, on 17 July 1916 and was murdered in Sobibor, on 20 March 1943.

Gustaaf was born in Amsterdam, on 28 December 1917. He was murdered in Auschwitz, on 13 November 1942. Less than two months after his wedding day.

sources

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Gustaaf-van-der-Wijk/02/175455

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/153998/gustaaf-van-der-wijk

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/131361/mina-van-der-wijk-de-vries

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I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2, however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thank you. To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the PayPal link. Many thanks.

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Felix Max Paul Leefsma

Dear Felix Max,

You were born 29,220 days ago. Approximately 701,280 hours or 42,076,800 minutes, or even 2,524,608,000 seconds ago.

These numbers are so hard to comprehend, just as hard to fathom that you were murdered only 550 days after you were born. The only consolation here is that you had one extra day of life because 1944 was a leap year.

You were born in Amsterdam, on 19 November 1942. You were murdered on 22 May 1944 in Auschwitz.

You were deemed an enemy of the state, of a foreign state, because the ones who thought that you were not fit for life, had occupied your country from another land. This doesn’t mean they didn’t get help from your fellow country man.

A one-year-old enemy of the state.

Dear Beautiful Angel, you look so much like me when I was your age. I hope you are looking down at me from heaven and that you find some comfort that your name is not forgotten.

source

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/214275/felix-max-paul-leefsma

The Journey of a Child

Edith Roseij Beek was born on April 12, 1934, in Oss, the Netherlands. She was the youngest of the two children of Arnold Beek and Clara Betsy de Jong. Brother Johan Rene Simon was born in 1930 in Oss. On November 19, 1943, she was murdered in Auschwitz, at age of nine.

When she was eight she was already wanted by the Police, an eight-year-old “hardened criminal.” This notification appeared in Algemeen Politieblad (General Police journal), nr 42, October 22, 1942, 1189, notice 2434.

“The police commissioner of Gouda requested that the schoolgirl Edith Rosey Beek be located, detained, and brought to trial. A resident of Gouda, she was suspected of having changed her place of residence without the required authorization on October 9, 1942. This description referred to Jews who had gone into hiding.”

Edith went to kindergarten at the Public Primary School on the Groeneweg and continued to attend school there until she has to leave this school in 1941. She then received private lessons from one of her former teachers, a non-Jewish woman, Mrs. Aberson. The school is now called the Casimir School. In September 1942, the family decided to go into hiding separately.

Edith hid in the presbytery of the Reformed church in Zwammerdam where Reverend Gunther and his housekeeper kept her hidden. The day after her birthday, April 22, 1943, she was arrested and so was the pastor, but he was later released.


In 1948 in Middelburg. 12 years were demanded against the constable Jan Kool, who in all likelihood betrayed her, and among other things, kidnapped Edith. One of the two Sicherheitsdienst (SD) men who picked her up was K.J.Leseman. Policeman Arie Oudenaarden, notorious in Gouda, was also involved in her arrest.

She was placed in a police cell and interrogated for five days. This was to no avail because before going into hiding the two children were taught what to say to strangers or in case they are arrested: “Father works in the mines and mother left me behind to look for my father in Germany.”

Where she was between April and June (29th) when she arrived in Westerbork (there she was in the orphanage, barrack 35) is unclear, on her index card of Westerbork there is an address in The Hague (in Bilitonstraat 18, a place established by the Nazis transit house for children) and there was a mention of a stay in Scheveningen.

She fell ill with scarlet fever, but despite the current quarantine, she was put on a transport (number 81) of 995 people to Auschwitz on Tuesday November 16, 1943. Immediately after her arrival on November 19, 1943, she was taken to the gas chambers and murdered. Her parents went into hiding in Drachten and her brother Johan on a farm in Kootwijkerbroek, they survived the war. Brother Johan died in 2011 in Barneveld, father Arnold in 1977 in Rotterdam, and mother Clara in 1978 in Apeldoorn.

Additional information regarding Edith’s hiding and arrest:

Information from a file regarding the traitor:
The person concerned was a member of the NSB and NVD and the Rechtsfront
On April 22, 1943, the SD arrested 9-year-old Jewish girl E.van Beek (so the same girl) who was hiding with the female pastor Gunther in Zwammerdam. It is believed that this girl died.
After hearing about this case, the person concerned stated that it was generally known at the time that this girl had gone into hiding with Gunther; he was also aware of this. He says that an anonymous note reached him stating that the SD had been informed of this fact. was given. In connection with this, he had discussed the matter with his group commander. When he was later summoned to the SD in Gouda about this matter—the SD had also received a letter stating that the said girl had gone into hiding with Reverend Gunther—he had informed the SD officer Renner stated that he was aware that the girl had indeed gone into hiding with Gunther. He had acknowledged this because he feared his position would be jeopardized otherwise.
After this conversation with Renner, he had gone to Reverend Gunther to warn her of the danger, but he did not find her at home. He then went to the sexton (Baars) and informed him of the case under covert terms. (The sexton Baars (he speaks of a “him”) denies, before DS. Gunther and the Jewish girl were arrested by the or anyone else to have been warned against this arrest).

The guard of the Marechaussee C.K. states in his PV dated June 28, 1945, that he heard the person concerned, say to someone at the time: “I had my daughter Ada find out whether the girl was a Jew, after which I passed it on to my son, notified the SD, but Zwammerdam was not part of their working area. They then passed it on to Rotterdam.”

Another witness story: “During the occupation, I was aware that Pastor Gunther, Pastor of the Remonstrant Church in Zwammerdam, had taken in a Jewish girl named Edith Beek in her home. This Jewish girl came from Gouda and was with her.

Rev. Gunther went into hiding because of the German measures against persons of Jewish blood. This girl was just playing with other children and so Rev. Gunther, to make it seem she wasn’t Jewish.

This girl and Rev. Gunther were both arrested by persons unknown to me, the exact date I can’t recall. I have heard that they were persons who were with the German Sicherheitsdienst. Rev. Gunther was only arrested for a short time, but we never heard anything more from the Jewish girl. I don’t think Rev. Gunther and the Jewish girl were arrested, because of betrayal by Jan Kool or were forewarned by anyone else that this arrest would take place. I am also sure that Jan Kool did not give any warning to anyone in my family about that arrest, because such a warning would certainly not have been ignored and I would have ensured that the arrest had not taken place. I cannot say with certainty that JK had introduced the Jewish girl to authority, but I do suspect him of this. At that time, the rumor in this neighborhood was that JK was absolutely to blame for that arrest. I thought K was a sneaky NSB member at the time.”

Witness story Arnold van Beek (father) doctor, 50 years old, Gouda, Extended Tiendenweg 54
“I, my wife, son, and daughter are of Jewish blood. Due to the German measures against persons of Jewish blood, we had to go into hiding during the occupation and we were assisted in an excellent way by friendly relations. On September 25, 1942, my daughter named Edith Roosje van Beek, born in Oss on April 21, 1934, went into hiding we did not know where our daughter had been taken, but we had complete confidence in it. We made no attempt to find out where our daughter had gone into hiding. About a week after our daughter went into hiding, we, my wife, son, and I went into hiding. My son went into hiding in the Veluwe and my wife and I in Friesland. We went into hiding from that time until the capitulation of Germany and fared well, except for my little daughter. My daughter went into hiding with Reverend Gunther in Zwammerdam. As I learned after the capitulation of Germany, my daughter Edith was arrested on April 22, 1943, by persons of the German Sicherheits Dienst, when she was staying with Reverend Gunther at her hiding place, Reverend Gunther was then arrested at the same time as my daughter, but she has spent only a short time in captivity. As I later learned, my daughter was transported to The Hague after her arrest and then to Westerbork. Where my daughter was taken afterward has remained unknown to me, and to this day, April 24, 1947, I have never heard anything about her. I have tried in every possible way to find out where my daughter is staying, but no investigation has had any result and I do not know whether my daughter is still alive. I now think I must assume that my daughter died as a result of the German terror during the occupation. We are very sad about this, especially because of the ignorance which we are about the fate of my daughter. As far as I know, the municipality of constable KOOL is responsible for the arrest of my daughter, because I heard that he went to the Sicherheitsdienst to tell
that my little daughter had gone into hiding with Reverend Gunther, This is what I heard from Reverend Gunther. If this KOOL is responsible for the betrayal of my daughter Edith, then I request criminal prosecution against him. And I hope, though I won’t get our sweet child back by doing so, that he will be severely punished, for he certainly deserves it. Kool must have known what the persons of Jewish blood were in for under the German occupation. I cannot explain more in this case.”

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/407840/edith-roseij-s-reis

https://map.stolpersteine.app/nl/gouda/locaties

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/29068/edith-roseij-beek

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Edith-Roseij-Beek/01/60198

10,000 Sterilizations Per Day

Sometimes people are evil because they are ignorant. Other times people are evil because they can be, and the regime they follow has given them a carte blanche to do whatever they want. Dr. Clauberg probably qualifies for both groups.

Dr. Clauberg was a German gynecologist who conducted medical experiments on human subjects (mainly Jewish) at the Auschwitz Concentration Camp. He worked with Horst Schumann in X-ray sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.

In 1945, near the close of World War II, he was captured by the Red Army and sentenced to 25 years in prison. Released in 1955 under a prisoner exchange agreement, he returned to Germany and continued to practice medicine.

Dr. Clauberg developed a method of non-surgical mass sterilization. Under the pretext of performing a gynecological examination, he first checked to make sure that the Fallopian tubes were open and then introduced a specially prepared chemical irritant, which caused acute inflammation. This led to the growing together of the tubes within a few weeks, and thus their obstruction. X-rays were used to check the results of each procedure. He was very proud of his achievements and boasted about them in a letter to Himmler.

June 7, 1943 letter from Professor Clauberg to Himmler, on his research concerning sterilization of women (Trials of War Criminals Before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals – Washington, U.S Govt. Print. Off., 1949-1953, Vol 1, p. 730):

Dear Reich Leader,

Today, I am fulfilling my obligation to report to you from time to time about the state of my research work…

The method I contrived to achieve the sterilization of the female organism without operation is as good as perfected. It can be performed by a single injection made through the entrance of the uterus in the course of the customary gynecological examination known to every physician. If I say that the method is “as good as perfected” this means:

  1. Still to be worked out are only minor improvements to the method.
  2. Already today, it could be put to practical use in the course of our regular eugenic sterilization and could thus replace the operation.

As to the question which you, Reich Leader, asked me almost one year ago, i.e., how much time would probably be required to sterilize 1,000 women by using this method? Today I can answer you with regard to the future as follows:

If my researches continue to have the same results as up to now – and there is no reason to doubt that— then the moment is not far off when I can say:

“One adequately trained physician in one adequately equipped place, with perhaps ten assistants (the number of assistants in conformity with the speed desired) will most likely be able to deal with several hundred, if not even 1,000 per day.”

He returned to West Germany, where he was reinstated at his former clinic based on his prewar scientific output. Bizarre behavior, including openly boasting of his achievements in “developing a new sterilization technique“ at Auschwitz Concentration Camp“ destroyed any chance he might have had of staying unnoticed. In 1955, after the public outcry from groups of survivors, Clauberg was arrested. He died before trial on August 9, 1957 in Kiel, Germany.

sources

https://digital.kenyon.edu/bulmash/258/

https://www.auschwitz.org/en/history/medical-experiments/carl-clauberg/

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/carl-clauberg

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Johannes van der Hoek—Born to be Murdered

This story has torn my heart open. I can’t tell you too much about Johannes van der Hoek all I can tell you is that he was born on November 6, 1942, in Westerbork. He must have been placed on a transport to Auschwitz, straight after his birth because, he was murdered there on November 9, 1942, with his mother and his 2-year-old sister, Johanna, just three days after he was born.

His father was murdered a few months later, April 30, 1943. also in Auschwitz.

The very sad irony is that on Johannes’s birthday, November 6, 1942, the Soviet POWs mutinied and escaped from Birkenau. Under cover of fog and falling darkness, they forced their way past the SS guard posts into a part of the Birkenau camp, still under construction, that was not fenced. However, the majority of them were shot or caught during the escape.

Why a 3 day old baby—why?

sources

https://www.auschwitz.org/en/history/resistance/prisoner-mutinies/

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/190314/johannes-van-der-hoek

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Johannes-van-der-Hoek/01/65244