How Neutral was Ireland during WWII-Ireland and the Third Reich.

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The Republic of Ireland was and still is a neutral country but during WWII there were many Irish volunteers who fought with the allies against the Axis power.Like The first RAF bomber pilot to be shot down and killed in 1939 was Willie Murphy from Cork. His navigator, Larry Slattery, from Thurles, became the longest-serving ‘British’ POW of the war.(pictured below in a Berlin POW hospital bed)

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On the other hand there were a great number of Irish who were sympathetic to Hitler and the Nazi regime.One of the most famous ones was the Irish playwright, critic and polemicist George Bernard Shaw.

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He despised democracy, supported Lenin, Stalin and the Soviet purges, and denied the Ukrainian Famine happened. He also supported Hitler, and denied the Holocaust happened.After Hitler’s suicide in May 1945, Shaw approved of the formal condolences offered by the Irish Taoiseach, Éamon de Valera, at the German embassy in Dublin.

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Shaw disapproved of the postwar trials of the defeated German leaders, as an act of self-righteousness: “We are all potential criminals”.

Charles Henry Bewley was raised in a famous Dublin Quaker business family (Bewleys Coffee and Cafes)and embraced Irish Republicanism and Roman Catholicism. He was the Irish envoy to Berlin who reportedly thwarted efforts to obtain visas for Jews wanting to leave Nazi Germany in the 1930s and to move to the safety of the Irish Free State.

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Inhis reports to Dublin during the 1930s he gave the impression that German Jews were not threatened; that they were involved in pornography, abortion and “the international white slave traffic”. He explained the Nuremberg Laws “As the Chancellor pointed out, it amounts to the making of the Jews into a national minority; and as they themselves claim to be a separate race, they should have nothing to complain of.” He reports that he had no knowledge of any “deliberate cruelty on the part of the [German] Government … towards the Jews”. He criticised Irish refugee policy as “inordinately liberal, and facilitating the entry of the wrong class of people” (meaning Jews). Bewley was dismissed just as World War II was breaking out, and never received a pension. However, Joseph Goebbels gave him a job writing propaganda. For a time he worked for a Swedish news agency, which was part of Goebbels’ propaganda machine.

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Dr. Adolf Mahr was an Austrian archaeologist who was Gruppenleiter (group leader) of the Dublin branch of the Nazi Party Auslandsorganisation (NSDP-AO).He arrived in Ireland in 1927 to work as keeper of antiquities in the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin.

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In 1934 Éamon de Valera appointed Mahr Director of the Museum.As the Nazi Party rose to power in Germany in the 1930s, Mahr joined in 1933 and became the Local Group Leader (Ortsgruppenleiter) in Ireland. During his spell as Nazi leader he recruited roughly 23 Germans. Mahr’s children were raised in Dublin in the 1930s but ended up in post-war Germany.

The IRA supported the Nazis in WW2 (the real ones, not just rhetorical ones). They ran safe houses for Nazi spies, aided Nazi intelligence, and even helped Nazi bombers. They planned to bring about a Nazi German invasion of Ireland, and would no doubt have been installed as a quisling government had Germany occupied Ireland.Chief-of-Staff of the IRA at this time was Seán McCool.

Hitler would of course have done to Ireland what he did to every other country. In the Wannsee Conference notes of Jan 1942, Ireland’s 4,000 Jews were listed for extermination. No doubt Irish quislings would have helped in this, as quislings helped in every other country.

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Luckily, the IRA failed in their plans, and the Jews of Ireland were not exterminated.

Andrija Artuković (19 November 1899 – 16 January 1988) was a Croatian lawyer, politician and senior member of the Croatian nationalist and fascist Ustaše organisation, who held the Interior and Justice portfolios in the Government of the Independent State of Croatia during World War II.

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He signed into law a number of racial laws against Serbs, Jews and Romani people, and was responsible for a string of concentration camps in which tens of thousands of civilians were murdered and mistreated. On 18 May 1945, British extradited some Croatian ministers and Prime Minister Nikola Mandić to the Yugoslav authorities. Artuković was not extradited, but he was released soon with remaining ministers. He left the British occupational zone, then went via the American to the French occupational zone, where his family was. With a Swiss passport under the pseudonym of Alois Anich, he traveled to Ireland. In 1948, he left Ireland with his wife and children, and entered the United States on a tourist visa and settled in Seal Beach, California.

Helmut Clissman was a German spy, active in Ireland during World War II.When war broke out in 1939, Mr Clissmann was ordered, along with other Germans living in Ireland, to return to Germany. This was later seen by the German intelligence services as a bad mistake, but they tried to use his expert knowledge to find out the strength of the IRA and whether Germany could use it to launch guerrilla attacks and sabotage in Northern Ireland.

Mr Clissmann also played a role in the release of Frank Ryan from a Spanish jail where he was under sentence of death for fighting on the republican side in the Civil War. Mr Clissmann knew Ryan as an IRA activist when in Ireland.

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He died on the 6th of November 1997 in Dublin.

Hermann Görtz (15 November 1890 – 23 May 1947) was a German spy in Britain and Ireland before and during World War II.

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In the summer of 1940, Görtz parachuted into Ballivor, County Meath, Ireland (Operation Mainau) in an effort to gather information. He moved in with former IRA leader Jim O’Donovan.

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His mission was to act as a liaison officer with the IRA and enlist their assistance during a potential German occupation of Britain. However, he soon decided that the IRA was too unreliable. On landing, he lost the ‘Ufa’ transmitter he had parachuted with. Goertz, attired in a Luftwaffe uniform, then walked to Dublin. He was not apprehended despite calling into a Garda barracks in Co Wicklow, asking for directions to Dublin. Goertz made it to Dublin and a “safe-house” at 245 Templeogue Road, Templeogue. 

In May 1940, the Irish police raided the home of an IRA member of German descent, Stephen Carroll Held, who had been working with Görtz, at his house at Blackheath Park, Clontarf. They confiscated a parachute, papers, Görtz’s World War I medals, and a number of documents about the defence infrastructure of Ireland. The papers they took included files on possible military targets in Ireland, such as airfields and harbours, as well as detailed plans of the so-called “Plan Kathleen”. This was an IRA plan for the invasion of Northern Ireland with the support of the Nazi military. Held had brought this plan to Germany prior to Görtz’s departure but his superiors had dismissed it as unfeasible.

Görtz went into hiding, staying with sympathizers in the Wicklow area and purposefully avoided contact with IRA safehouses. He remained at large for a total of eighteen months. When another IRA member, Pearse Paul Kelly, visited Goertz’s hiding place in Dublin in November 1941, police arrested them both.

Görtz was interned until the end of the war. He was first detained in Mountjoy Prison but later moved to Custume Barracks, Athlone with nine others.

 

Hermann Goertz was released from jail in Athlone in August 1946. He went to live in Glenageary and became secretary of a charity called Save The German Children Fund. He was rearrested the following year and served with a deportation order by the Minister for Justice. He claimed to have been in the SS rather than a lieutenant in the Luftwaffe in an attempt to prevent his deportation but this claim was disproved by Irish Military Intelligence (G2) which also “promoted” him to Major when sending him messages allegedly from Germany. On Friday May 23, 1947 he arrived at the Aliens’ Office in Dublin Castle at 9.50am and was told he was being deported to Germany the next day. Although it had been stated to him that the Irish government had specifically requested that he not be handed over to the Soviets, he committed suicide.

The Irish Times reported that he: “Stared disbelievingly at the detective officers. Then suddenly, he took his hand from his trouser pocket, swiftly removed his pipe from between his lips, and slipped a small glass phial into his mouth. One of the police officers sprang at Goertz as he crunched the glass with his teeth. The officer got his hands around Goertz’s neck but failed to prevent most of the poison – believed to be prussic acid – from passing down his throat. Within a few seconds, Goertz collapsed.”He was driven to Mercer’s Hospital and died there shortly after arrival.

Görtz was buried three days later in a Dublin cemetery.

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In 1974 his remains were transferred to the German Military Cemetery at Glencree, Co. Wicklow.

Other notable Nazi’s who sought and found refuge in Ireland were Otto Skorzeny and Dutch War Criminal Pieter Menten.

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https://dirkdeklein.net/2016/02/18/forgotten-history-war-criminal-pieter-menten/

Controversially,de Valera formally offered his condolences to the German Minister in Dublin on the death of Adolf Hitler in 1945, in accordance with diplomatic protocol.This did some damage to Ireland, particularly in the United States – and soon afterwards de Valera had a bitter exchange of words with Winston Churchill in two famous radio addresses after the end of the war in Europe.

 

 

 

The big Nazi fraud

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It is funny how some social media posts are now being used in a similar fashion as the propaganda of the 1930s’ to 1945 in Germany. One should never underestimate the perception of ‘truth’. Just because someone says it is true doesn’t mean it is and just because someone says it is their idea, the reality might be completely different.

None of the symbols used by the Nazi’s were original, but yet were seen as creations of the NSDAP party and it’s leader.

In fact even their leader was a fake.

Adolf Hitler

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He wasn’t even born German, he was born in Braunau am Inn in Austria.Hitler’s father Alois Hitler, Sr. (1837–1903) was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber.The baptismal register did not show the name of his father, and Alois initially bore his mother’s surname Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois’s mother Maria Anna. Alois was brought up in the family of Hiedler’s brother, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler. In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal register changed by a priest to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois’s father (recorded as “Georg Hitler”).Alois then assumed the surname “Hitler”,also spelled as Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler.

The Swastika

The swastika  is an ancient religious symbol originating from the Indian subcontinent, being the symbol of peace and continuity that generally takes the form of an equilateral cross with four legs each bent at 90 degrees. It is considered to be a sacred and auspicious symbol in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism and dates back at least 11,000 years.It continues to be commonly used as a religious symbol in religions native to the Indian subcontinent such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.

The Eagle

The Reichsadler can be traced back to the banner of the Holy Roman Empire, when the eagle was the insignia of Imperial power as distinguished from the Imperial states. It was meant to embody the reference to the Roman tradition , similar to the double-headed eagle used by the Palaiologi emperors of the Byzantine Empire or the tsars of Russia

The SS Symbol

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The Sig rune in Guido von List’s Armanen Futharkh were very loosely based on the Younger Futhark Sigel, thus changing the concept associated with it from “Sun” to “victory” (German Sieg), arriving Týr” in his row, yielding Sigtýr, a name of Ódin.

It was adapted into the emblem of the SS in 1933 by Walter Heck, an SS-Sturmhauptführer who worked as a graphic designer for the firm of Ferdinand Hofstätter, a producer of emblems and insignia in Bonn.Heck’s simple but striking device consisted of two sig runes drawn side by side like lightning bolts, and was soon adopted by all branches of the SS – though Heck himself received only a token payment of 2.5 Reichsmarks for his work.The device had a double meaning; as well as standing for the initials of the SS, it could be read as a rallying cry of “Victory, Victory!”. The symbol became so ubiquitous that it was frequently typeset using runes rather than letters; during the Nazi period, an extra key was added to German typewriters to enable them to type the double-sig logo with a single keystroke.

SS Totenkopf

Totenkopf (i.e. skull, literally dead’s head) is the German word for the skull and crossbones and death’s head symbols. The Totenkopf symbol is an old international symbol for death, the defiance of death, danger, or the dead, as well as piracy. It consists usually of the human skull with or without the mandible and often includes two crossed long-bones (femurs), most often depicted with the crossbones being behind some part of the skull.

Concentration camps

The experience of Nazi Germany in World War II stands as the paradigmatic example of concentration camps. The Nazi government led by Adolf Hitler and an ideology of cleansing the German nation and controlled territories of Non-Aryans, developed camps for mass extermination and forced labor. The primary groups targeted by Germans were Jews from Germany and territories occupied by Germany during World War II like the Netherlands, France, and Poland. However, while the Nazi camps are known for their extermination of Jews they were not the only populations placed in camps. Nazis also placed the Roma (Gypsies), Africans, homosexuals, and communists in camps for forced labor and extermination.

The Nazi camps first began in 1933 largely for internment but were converted to the cause of extermination in 1941.

However the first use of concentration camps was by the British during the Boer war (1899–1902). Boers and black Africans were placed in camps so that they would be unable to aid Boer guerrillas. It is reported that more than 27,000 Boers and 14,000 Africans died in the camps from disease and starvation. Most of the dead were children, clearly noncombatants in the conflict. The British also employed the use of concentration camps in Namibia, the Isle of Man, Cyprus, Kenya, Channel Islands, and Northern Ireland.

The Nazi Salute

The salute gesture is widely believed to be based on an ancient Roman custom.However, no surviving Roman work of art depicts it, nor does any extant Roman text describe it.Jacques-Louis David’s painting Oath of the Horatii (1784) seems to be the starting point for the gesture that became known as the Roman salute.The gesture and its identification with ancient Rome was advanced in other French neoclassic art. This was further elaborated upon in popular culture during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in plays and films that portrayed the salute as an ancient Roman custom. This included the silent film Cabiria (1914), whose screenplay was written by the Italian ultra-nationalist Gabriele d’Annunzio, arguably the forerunner of Benito Mussolini.

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In 1919, when he led the occupation of Fiume, d’Annunzio adopted the style of salute depicted in the film as a neo-Imperialist ritual;and it was quickly adopted by the Italian Fascist Party, before it was then taken by the Nazi’s as their salute.

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How crazy were the Nazis?-Nazis and the Occult.

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Heinrich Himmler must have been without a shadow of a doubt one of the craziest of the Nazis. He had a bizarre fascination for the occult.

Karl Maria Wiligut had been one of Himmler’s closest influancers relating to the occult of the Aryan and Germanic race.

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Karl Maria Wiligut (alias Weisthor, Jarl Widar, Lobesam) (10 December 1866,Vienna, Austria – 3 January 1946, Arolsen, Germany) was an Austrian Occultist and SS-Brigadeführer.

He had claimed that the Aryan race had been around for 285,000 years, dating back when there were 3 Suns and the planet was inhabited by Giants, dwarfs and other mythical creatures ,he alsorevealed himself as bearer of a secret line of German kingship.One thing that Himmler didn’t find out until later was that Willigut had been a patient in a mental hospital. His wife had him committed .While in a cafe with some friends, on 29 November 1924, Wiligut was arrested by police and taken to the local mental institution where he was held for a couple of years.

Wiligut’s medical records reflect violence at home, including threats to kill his wife, grandiose projects, eccentric behavior and occult interests. Eventually, in 1924, he was diagnosed with schizophrenia and megalomania and was declared legally incompetent by a Salzburg court and then committed to a Salzburg asylum, where he remained until 1927. In 1932, he abandoned his wife and family, and emigrated from Austria to Germany, residing in Munich.

Shortly after being introduced to Reichsführer-SS Himmler in September 1933 at a conference of the Nordische Gesellschaft, Wiligut was inducted into the SS (under the pseudonym “Karl Maria Weisthor”) to head a Department for Pre- and Early History which was created for him within the SS Race and Settlement Main Office (RuSHA). In the spring of 1935 Wiligut was transferred to Berlin to serve on Himmler’s personal staff. He was promoted to the rank of Brigadeführer in September 1936.

In Berlin, where he worked in the office of Karl Wolff, chief adjutant of the SS, Wiligut developed his plans for the rebuilding of the Wewelsburg into an allegorical “center of the world”.

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In summer 1936, Gunther Kirchhoff and Wiligut, undertook a private 22-day expedition to the Murg Valley near Baden-Baden in the Black Forest, where there was a settlement described as consisting of “old half-timbered houses, architectural ornament, crosses, inscriptions, and natural and man-made rock formations in the forest,” which, they claimed, showed it to be an ancient Krist settlement ,Krist was a messianic Germanic figure allegedly associated with Irminism,( a germanic neo-pagan denomination; the term comes from the Irminsul pillar, which represents the world axis in the old german). Wiligut identified Schloss Eberstein as a center of Irminism.

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Wiligut identified Irminism as the true German ancestral religion.He contributed significantly to the development of Wewelsburg as the order-castle and ceremonial center of SS pseudo-religious practice. He designed the Totenkopfring, which Himmler personally awarded to prestigious SS officers

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In November 1938, Karl Wolff, chief adjutant of Himmler’s personal staff and the second-highest-ranking officer in the SS, visited Wiligut’s wife and learned of Wiligut’s earlier involuntary commitment to a mental institution, which proved embarrassing to Himmler.

Wiligut’s staff was notified that his “application” for retirement on grounds of age and poor health had been granted in February 1939, and the official retirement was dated 28 August 1939, only a few days prior to the outbreak of World War II.

The Ahnenerbe was an institute in Nazi Germany purposed to research the archaeological and cultural history of the Aryan race.

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Founded on July 1, 1935, by Heinrich Himmler, Herman Wirth, and Richard Walther Darré, the Ahnenerbe later conducted experiments and launched expeditions in an attempt to prove that mythological Nordic populations had once ruled the world.

 

It was not long before the operations of the Ahnenerbe branched out from their brand of “science” and out into the outer edges of the occult, and perhaps considering the pedigree of its founding fathers it is no surprise. Herman Wirth was a Dutch historian obsessed with finding the location of Atlantis, and future SS leader Himmler had an intense well-known fascination with all things occult to a disturbing degree. In fact, Himmler was somewhat of a crackpot, who had grand desires to one day replace the Christian religion with one of his own making, and he was one of the driving forces behind the Ahnenerbe’s steady divergence from its original purpose and increasing role as a tool of the occult. As this ominous organization pulsed and grew, it fanned out around the world on numerous fantastic quests that seem like something straight out of an Indiana Jones film. They delved into the remote areas of the world looking for lost lands, various ancient relics, mystical texts, magical items, weird curiosities, bizarre paranornmal locations, and strange supernatural artifacts of all kinds.

Nazi endorsement and expansion of the institute, the Ahnenerbe expanded to approximately 50 branches dealing with everything from long range weather prediction, to archeology, to ESP research and the supernatural, and substantially stepped up their operations, scouring the far flung corners of the earth in search of a wide variety of such legendary wonders as the Holy Grail, the location of Atlantis, and the Spear of Destiny, with which Longinus had stabbed into Christ’s side as he suffered upon the cross.

 

The group also searched for various portals to other realms, as well as for ancient lost lands, including Atlantis and expeditions influenced by an equally mysterious organization known as the Thule Society looking for a fantastical land called Thule, which was believed to be the true birthplace of the Aryan race and the discovery of which would endow them with vast superhuman powers such as telekinesis, telepathy, and flight, abilities which they had lost over centuries of mixing with “lesser races.”

Their strong desire to find new, secret weapons extended into the organization’s “scientific” divisions, which actively sought to develop top secret new technologies based on ancient lost or forbidden knowledge, mystical texts, alien technologies, and their own secret research. The group was heavily involved with various areas of bizarre pseudoscience, including finding crashed UFOS and the study of far out theories such as what was known as the World Ice Theory, which proposed that Earth had been created when a massive chunk of ice had impacted with the sun and that the planet had several moons orbiting it which could result in polar shifts and cataclysmic disasters. The Ahnenerbe was also interested in harnessing the power of the occult, magic, and psychic powers for use as weapons against their enemies, and to this end there were various programs devoted to such pursuits, including trying to develop psychic assassins who could kill with their minds, using astral projection to spy on the enemy, astrology to help plan strategies, the use of magic spells as weapons, and the divination of the future, among other various such bizarre projects. The organization also allegedly tried to harness the power of runes, a fact reflected in the use of rune-like lettering in the organization’s logo. There has also been much speculation that the group was heavily interested in finding and utilizing alien technology for numerous weapons programs. This may all seem absurd, but none of this was a joke to the Nazis, and many in power fervently believed in these numerous quests and projects, pouring a great deal of money, manpower, and resources into them.

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Since these were the Nazis we’re dealing with, of course the Ahnenerbe’s malevolent dealings extended to human experimentation, and there were various sinister experiments to this effect carried out in their dark, secret lairs and laboratories. This is especially noticeable with the Ahnenerbe’s incorporation of the Institut für Wehrwissenschaftliche Zweckforschung (“Institute for Military Scientific Research”) during World War II, which was tasked with all manner of shady military research and development, and began a dark era of gruesome experiments on the bedraggled prisoners of concentration camps. Most of these projects had mixed results and were of questionable goals, yet all of them were truly ruthless and demonstrative of a profound and disturbing lack of respect for human life, perhaps fitting since the Nazis did not regard their prisoners as really human at all.

One of the most notorious instances of the Ahnenerbe’s use of humans as test subjects was a project to determine the physical limits of pilots who were flying ever more advanced aircraft for the Luftwaffe.

The Institut für Wehrwissenschaftliche Zweckforschung (“Institute for Military Scientific Research”), which conducted extensive medical experiments using human subjects, became attached to the Ahnenerbe during World War II. It was managed by Wolfram Sievers.Sievers had founded the organization on the orders of Himmler, who appointed him director with two divisions headed by Sigmund Rascher and August Hirt, and funded by the Waffen-SS.

 

Rascher was granted unlimited access to helpless prisoners for use in his demented experiments, and he began putting them into portable vacuum chambers that resembled medieval torture devices and were designed to simulate differing altitudes in flight. The prisoners were locked into the chambers against their will and the pressure was subsequently drastically altered between high altitude and low altitude settings in order to simulate the rapid rises of advanced aircraft as well as a state of freefall without oxygen for the purpose of analyzing the effects upon the human body.

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It is somewhat unsurprising that most of these test subjects did not survive these demanding, inhumane trials which pushed them past their physiological limits, and Rascher was remarkably cruel even to those who did. When Himmler suggested that, as payment for their services, survivors of the experiments have their sentences commuted to life imprisonment rather than the inevitable death they had faced before Rascher refused, saying that the prisoners were all Poles and Russians who deserved no amnesty or mercy. Surviving these experiments probably meant further torture and a death worse than what the vacuum chambers had to offer.

It was alleged that the Nazis were even involved with reviving dead animals and even humans through unknown enigmatic means. One interesting tidbit related to this is the finding made on 28 April 1945, when Allied forces captured a munitions factory depot named Bernterode, located in the German region of Thuringia. As some American officers explored a tunnel within the factory, they discovered a brick wall disguised to look like part of the rock which was 5 feet thick. When the mysterious wall was broken down, a vast chamber was revealed containing a trove of an immense amount of stolen artwork and relics, as well as many Nazi banners and a large number of new uniforms. In one adjoining chamber there were found to be four enormous coffins, with three of them containing the remains of the 17th century Prussian king, Frederick the Great, as well as Field Marshall von Hindenburg and his wife.

 

The fourth coffin was empty and held a plaque engraved with Adolph Hitler’s name. Although it is unknown for what reason these remains were being kept for, some have suggested that the Nazis, specifically the Ahnenerbe, had plans to somehow resurrect or clone them at a later time. An Aug 23, 2015 article by Noah Charney for Salon magazine entitled Did Nazis really try to make zombies? The real history behind one of our weirdest WWII obsessions, points to this speculation as being largely a literal interpretation of an article in Life magazine from the 50s, in which it is stated:

“The corpses were to be concealed until some future movement when their reappearance could be timed by resurgent Nazis to fire another German generation to rise and conquer again”

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The strange case of Douglas Kelley, Nuremberg Trials Psychiatrist

Lt. Colonel Douglas McGlashan Kelley (11 August 1912 – January 1, 1958) was a United States Army Military Intelligence Corps officer who served as chief psychiatrist at Nuremberg Prison during the Nuremberg War Trials. He was charged with ascertaining defendants’ competency evaluations before standing trial.

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Kelley was born in Truckee, California. He graduated from University of California at Berkeley and received his medical degree from the School of Medicine in San Francisco. He continued his studies at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, earning a Doctor of Medical Science in 1941.

In 1942 he was called to duty in the United States Army Medical Corps as chief psychiatrist for the 30th General Hospital in the European Theatre. Along with psychologist Gustave Gilbert he administered the Rorschach inkblot test to the 22 defendants in the Nazi leadership group prior to the first Nuremberg trials.

Kelley authored two books on the subject: Twenty-two Cells in Nuremberg and The Case of Rudolph Hess.

rudolf_hessDouglas Kelley wrote that one of the things that surprised him most about former Deputy Fuhrer Rudolf Hess was his absolute naivete.

By the time the psychiatrist examined him, he had been in custody for about four years following his attempt to get the British to join the Germans in fighting the Soviet Union. He seemed earnestly shocked that he was taken prisoner and revealed that he was absolutely convinced that he was slowly being poisoned. So Hess began saving food, medicine . . . anything that he was offered, wrapping samples in little brown packages, sealing them with wax, and stockpiling them for later analysis.

When first taken captive, he refused all food. After holding out for a whole day, though, he gave in and accepted some milk. Already suspicious, he would only eat with those who were holding him, but when he got a massive headache afterward, he wrote that it was then that he knew he was being poisoned.

He also wrote that his captors were apparently disappointed when he answered their questions, so he started pretending simply not to remember. He did it so much that eventually, he says, the amnesia was real, and most likely helped along by what he called the “brain poison.”

His certainty that he was being poisoned increased as his captivity dragged on. He thought that there were bones and splinters in his food and powders in his laundry to cause rashes. He claimed that the skin on the inside of his mouth was being worn away and claimed that his stomach pains were so bad that he needed to scrape and eat lime from the walls of his cell relieve the pain. Brain poison was destroying his memory more and more, and kept on believing it even though a Swiss messenger tested his food and told him that there was nothing wrong with it.

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When Hermann Goering was taken into custody, what he brought with him alone spoke volumes about his self-importance. There were 12 monogrammed suitcases, jewel-studded medals, the equivalent of about $1 million in cash, several cigar cutters, and a stash of watches and cigarette cases. Along with potassium cyanide capsules sewn into his clothes and stashed in a can of coffee, there was also a suitcase filled with enough paracodeine for a small country.

The case was filled with somewhere around 20,000 capsules, and it’s thought that he had gone directly to Germany’s manufacturers for his stash. That wasn’t all of it, either—he admitted that he had already flushed a large amount of pills before his capture, as he’d thought that it would have been unseemly to have been captured with as many pills as he’d had.

Originally, he claimed that they were part of a doctor’s prescription that he was taking for a heart condition, insisting that he was required to take 40 pills a day. Not surprisingly, they didn’t believe him and had the pills tested. The painkiller, related to morphine and opium, was found to work along the same lines as codeine, but with a stronger sedative action.They started weaning him off the pills immediately, dropping his daily dose to first 38 pills, then to 18. At that point, medical staff were advised not to reduce the dose any further, since they weren’t sure what would happen to him if he was taken off the drugs completely. He was still going through withdrawals by the time Kelley took over his treatment.

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Part of establishing whether or not the Nazis were capable of standing trial was the administration of an IQ test. The Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test was adapted from English and given in German, and at the time, it was one of the most widely used IQ tests available. Scores of 65 or less were classified as “defective,” between 80 and 119 as normal, and 128 and above was “very superior.” Only about 2.2 percent of the population scored in that range. Some of the questions were altered to get rid of any kind of cultural bias, and the test measured things like memory, mental calculations, picking out objects or details deleted from a picture, and even hand speed.

The average for the 21 Nazis tested was 128. (Ley was already dead by this time.) The highest score was 143, from Hjalmar Schacht, with Goering, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Karl Donitz, Franz von Papen, Erich Raeder, Hans Frank, Hans Fritsche, and Baldur von Schirach all testing 130 or above, and with Joachim von Ribbentrop, Wilhelm Keitel, and Albert Speer all also falling into the “very superior” category.

Their reaction to IQ testing was even more fascinating, with many of them actually looking forward to the testing and most being pleased with the results. Even those like Franz von Papen, who were initially irritated with the idea that they needed to subject themselves to a test that was so far beneath them, admitted that it was one of the more enjoyable moments of their captivity.

Perhaps most bizarre was the reaction of Wilhelm Keitel (pictured above) to the test. He was very, very impressed by it, even going as far as to say that it was much better than the “silly nonsense that German psychologists resorted to.” Later, Kelley discovered that Keitel had outlawed all intelligence testing after his son had flunked out during the tests to enter officer training.

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But as the title suggest it is a strange case.Upon honorable discharge in 1946, Kelley was appointed Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the Bowman Gray School of Medicine in North Carolina. In 1949 he was appointed Professor of Criminology at the University of California at Berkeley. He committed suicide in front of his wife and children on New Year’s Day 1958 by ingesting a capsule of potassium cyanide.

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He killed himself in the same way as Hermann Goering had done.

His suicide was front-page news for two days in The Chronicle. He was just 45 years old. He had attended a New Year’s Eve party the night before. “He was his usual jovial self,” one guest was quoted as saying. He had driven into San Francisco earlier in the day to pick up his father, a dentist, so they could watch the Rose Bowl on the family’s new color television. He left no note.