Eduard and Alexander Hornemann—Used as Experiments and Murdered

Eduard and Alexander Hornemann are two of the 20 Bullenhuser Damm children who were murdered on 20 April 1945. I have written about the Bullenhuser Damm children before, but I just want to focus on the two brothers now. The reason being, at another time it could have been my boys whose names would have been on that list.

Like Eduard and Alexander’s father, I too worked for Philips at one stage in my life.

Eduard, the elder of the two Hornemann brothers, was born on 1 January 1933. He was known as Edo in the family. Alexander was born on 31 May 1936 and was nicknamed Lexje. The family were from Eindhoven in the Netherlands.

The father, Philip (aka Flip)Carel Hornemann, worked for Philips. After the occupation of the Netherlands by German forces, he and another 100 Jewish colleagues were deployed to a special department of the company. His wife Elisabeth hid on a farm with their son Alexander, whilst Eduard was taken in on another farm. When the Jewish employees of Philips were taken to the 18 Vught Concentration camp, Elisabeth Hornemann followed her husband with her two sons.

On August 18 1943, German troops surrounded the Philips plant in Eindhoven and arrested all the Jews. Philip Carel Hornemann and the rest of the Jewish employees were sent to Vught, a Dutch concentration camp, where they were put to work in a Philips operation that employed more than 3,000 prisoners.

The Philips workers received extra rations and were given the special privilege of living together with their wives and children. When a Philips Corporation representative told Alexander’s mother that the company could guarantee her family’s safety only if she joined her husband in the camp, she felt that she had no choice but to go.

But prior to that their lives had already been interrupted. In 1942 the family lived in the Staringstraat in Eindhoven. The Nazis them to move to Gagelstraat because they have to make way for a Nazi-minded family.

On 3 June 1944, the Hornemanns were deported to the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camp in Poland. The two boys remained with their mother and were sent to the women’s barracks. Conditions in the camp were horrendous. There was little food and disease was rampant. Alexander’s mother contracted typhoid fever three months after their arrival and died soon after. Philip died from exhaustion on transport to another camp.

Kurt Heissmeyer was a SS physician and the nephew of the senior SS officer August Heissmeyer. He was working to obtain his Professorship, which required original research.

Although previous research was dismissed, Heissmeyer’s hypothesis was by injecting live tuberculosis bacilli into subjects, the bacilli would function as a vaccine. Another aspect of his experiment was based on the Nazi racial theory that race played a factor in developing tuberculosis. By proving his theory he injected live tuberculosis bacilli into the lungs and bloodstream of 20 Jewish children at the Neuengamme Concentration Camp. These were the 20 children selected by Joseph Mengele, amongst them were the two Hornemann boys. Eduard and Alexander Hornemann were brought to Neuengamme Concentration Camp on 28 November 1944.

On 20 April 1945, the children were taken to the abandoned Bullenhuser Schule. They were cheerful and happy to get out of the camp. The children were given a morphine injection that evening. Just before the injection, they were told that they would be “put to bed quickly.” That night, all twenty children were killed by hanging in the basement of the Bullenhuser Schule. On that same day, the British were less than three miles from the camp.

“I don’t think that the camp inmates are worth the same as other people,” said 61-year-old Kurt Heissmeyer on 21 June 1966. When asked, “Why didn’t you use laboratory animals?” he replied, “because there is no difference between laboratory animals and humans,” and then corrected himself, “between laboratory animals and Jews.”

Heissmeyer died on 29 August 1967.

sources

http://www.philips-kommando.nl/blauw_persoon15.html

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/artikel/de-broertjes-hornemann-medische-experimenten-nazi-kampen

http://www.kinder-vom-bullenhuser-damm.de/_english/eduard_und_alexander_hornemann.php

https://www.museumoftolerance.com/education/teacher-resources/holocaust-resources/children-of-the-holocaust/alexander-hornemann.html

Killed to obtain a professorship

Hornebach

Alexander Hornemann, 8, the Netherlands
Eduard Hornemann, 12, the Netherlands
Marek Steinbaum, 10, Poland
Marek James, 6, Poland
W. Junglieb, 12, Yugoslavia
Roman Witonski, 7, Poland
Roman Zeller, 12, Poland
Sergio de Simone, 7, Italy
Georges Andre Kohn, 12, France
Eduard Reichenbaum, 10, Poland
Jacqueline Morgenstern, 12, France
Surcis Goldinger, 11, Poland
Lelka Birnbaum, 12, Poland
Eleonora Witonska, 5, Poland
Ruchla Zylberberg, 10, Poland
H.Wasserman, 8, Poland
Lea Klygerman, 8, Poland
Rywka Herszberg, 7, Poland
Blumel Mekler, 11, Poland
Mania Altman, 5, Poland

Above is the list of 20 children, 10 boys and 10 girls ,aged between 5 and 12 ,who were killed on the night of 20/21 April 1945.They were the children of the Bullenhuser Damm School . They were killed along their minders French doctors, Gabriel Florence and René Quenouille, and two Dutchmen Dirk Deutekom and Anton Hölzel.

The children had been killed for Kurt Heissmeyer to obtain a professorship In order to do this , he had to carry out medical experiments.He injected the children with living tuberculosis bacteria in their veins and directly into their lungs to determine if they had any natural immunity to tuberculosis.

His experiment was carried out on the children  at Neuengamme concentration camp. Because of the approaching allied troops the children and their minders were transported to Bullenhuser Damm School, where they were killed. I have written about these children before but looking back at it today I realized how close to it was to me in a personal way.

The picture at the top of the blog is of the 2 brothers Eduard and Alexander Hornemann.  Their parents both  worked at the Philips factory in Eindhoven,the Netherlands. Their Father ,Philip, died on February 21, 1945 at Sachsenhausen, where he arrived after a stop at Dachau after the ‘death march’. Their mother Elisabeth died of typhus in Auschwitz in October 1944.

I worked for Philips between 1987 and 1997, not in Endhoven but I often had to go there for several training programs as it was the HQ of Philips in the Netherlands. A few decades earlier they would have been my colleagues.

Donation

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Sources

http://www.kinder-vom-bullenhuser-damm.de/_english/the_story.php

https://collections.arolsen-archives.org/en/archive/1-1-30-1_2430000/?p=1&doc_id=3423031&tf_subject_index=20332817&pf_family_status=19532506

The trend of Retro

nokia-3311

Just when you think that the whole world has gone digital and cyber-crazy a new trend emerges. It is the trend of’ old stuff coming back’, the ‘trend of Retro’ so to speak.

The above picture is of a Nokia 3310. Nokia announced that in the midst of all things ‘Smart’ they are bringing the 3310 back. It make sense I suppose because people are getting more and more frustrated(me included) about the battery life of the Smart Phones. At the end of the day regardless of all the fancy features, the primary function is still a Phone.

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I had a 3310 and the battery would last forever. You could leave the phone alone for a month and you’d still have 99% battery life.

I grew up listening to Vinyl albums,singles and cassette tapes.

 

Then around 1982 this new invention was released, the Compact Disc player.(even though Philips already had the first concept of a CD player in 1968) The CD’s were supposed to be indestructible, they could even survive nuclear disasters.

The CD’s were the future and would replace all vinyl and tape formats.

 

Then come 21st century and the world has gone on-line. Apple came out with this pocket size device called the iPod.intro_originalipod

It allowed customers to download music from the internet on the iPod. Many people think that the iPod was the first MP3 type of music player but in fact , the first MP3 player was developed in the early 1990s by Frauenhofer, but this player was unsuccessful. In 1997 Tomislav Uzelac of Advanced Multimedia Products invented the AMP MP3 Playback Engine, which is recognized as the first successful MP3 Player.

worlds-first-mp3-player-1998-mpman-32mb

 

These devices were portable and would replace the Walkman’s and Discman devices. So the days of tapes and CD’s were surely numbered.

But the last few years there has been a revival of the Vinyl albums.And because it is now trendy to buy Vinyl albums again, record companies can charge these ‘Trendy’ new customers twice the price.

Even the cassette tape is set to make its return to a retailer near you. As for the CD’s they didn’t actually disappear.

Streaming is now the new format to threaten all other formats, but for some reason I don’t think that is really going to happen.

As for me I am holding on to all formats of music I have. I made the silly mistake in the 80’s to give away all my vinyl albums to replace them with CD’s. Not realizing that some albums were never going to be released on CD.Although in my collection at the time I was told that the debut  EP Queensryche by Queensryche was very unlikely to ever be released in a format other then Vinyl.

8900

Lucky for me they were wrong.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2, however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thank you. To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the PayPal link. Many thanks.

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Operation Oyster—The Bombing of Philips Eindhoven

For 10 years I worked for Philips and was not aware of this bit of the company’s history, although I worked in a different plant in another city, the links to Eindhoven were substantial because HQ was located there.

On this day 80 years ago the Philips Radio Works in Eindhoven, in the Netherlands was bombed by the RAF. It was a daring low-level attack which turned out to be a notable success for the allies as it cost the Germans an estimated six months’ loss of production.

mosquito-crew-briefing

On 6th December 1942, the RAF mounted Operation Oyster, a daylight low-level bombing raid on the Philips electronic company in Eindhoven, Holland. It was hoped that this approach would minimise casualties amongst Dutch civilians. It also provided the opportunity to build a well-photographed publicity exercise around the whole raid. The Mosquito was developing quite a reputation for this low-level work, although only a small proportion of the aircraft on the raid was of this type.

Squadron Leader Charles Patterson was one of the more experienced pilots taking part, his observer’s seat was occupied by Flying Officer Jimmy Hill from RAF Film Unit – the footage from this raid can be seen in the video below:

93 aircraft took part in the raid;
47 (PV-1) Venturas Mk. Is of RAF No. 21, RAAF No. 464 and RNZAF No. 487 Squadrons.

ventura1_zpsc1c6cf5c

36 (A-20) Boston IIIs of Nos. 88, 107, and 226 Squadrons

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10 Mosquito Mk. IVs of No.105 and No.139 Squadrons;
83 aircraft dropped bombs and one Mosquito was a photographic aircraft.
Eindhoven is beyond the range of fighter escorts so the raid was flown at a low level and in clear weather conditions.

The bombing had to be very accurate to only cause damage to factories in the complex as the Factories were in the middle of the town. Normally they were also full of Dutch workers under Nazi guard so the raid was carried out on a Sunday to try and reduce civilian casualties. Unfortunately, some bombs fell in nearby streets killing 148 Dutch people and seven German soldiers.

Full production at the factory was not reached again until six months after the raid.

Forgotten History-Frits Philips

sources

https://www.annefrank.org/nl/timeline/151/bombardement-op-philipsfabrieken-in-eindhoven/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Oyster

https://isgeschiedenis.nl/nieuws/sinterklaasbombardement-in-eindhoven

originally posted December 6, 2016