Sally van Dijk,8 year old boy Murdered on May 25-1943,Sobibor.

Sally was born on August 19, 1934 in Geffen, the Netherlands. I wish I could say more about Sally, but there is very little known about him. The fact that he was murdered on May 28,1943 in Sobibor is sad, What makes it even sadder, his father, mother and older sister were murdered the same day, in the same place.

In fact in total 2849 Dutch Jews were murdered that day in Sobibor. They had all been transported from Westerbork.

Sally’s short life already had been interrupted. From September 1, 1941, Jewish children had to go to separate schools and were no longer allowed to go to public schools.

The Mandatory Star of David was introduced from May 3, 1942 and obliged all Jews older than six years to wear the Star of David. It had to be worn visibly at chest height. The star was distributed by the Jewish Council and cost 4 cents each.

I don’t know when Sally and his family were forced to go there, but until 25 May 1943 Sally van Dijk was imprisoned in Camp Westerbork.

Only 3 days later, Sally and 2848 others were murdered in Sobibor.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/33516/sally-van-dijk

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Sally-van-Dijk/01/436

Transport to Cosel: Limburg Jews on their way to death.

Before I go into the story of the men, who were put on slave labour by the Nazi regime, I will have to explain what ‘Limburg’ is .Limburg is a province in the southeast of the Netherlands and the northeast of Belgium.

I was born and grew up in the Dutch side of Limburg. The most populated part is the south of the Dutch Limburg, it is also the part that looks completely different then the rest of the Netherlands. There are actually hills there. Although I am a native of the province, I was not aware of the fate of these men.

Not all deportation trains with Dutch Jews went directly to the extermination camps and gas chambers. Between August 28 and December 10, 1942, some of the trains to Auschwitz-Birkenau made a stopover in Silesian Cosel (present-day Poland). Here almost all men between the ages of 15 and 55 had to get off the train at the freight station. Where they were put to work.

On 24 August 1942, six hundred Limburg Jews were issued a call-up card by the Dutch police, the municipal police or a constable. They were all under the age of sixty and had to report to the assembly point at the public school on Professor Pieter Willemsstraat in Maastricht the next day.

Only half of them showed up. The group was taken to Camp Westerbork and was largely deported on August 28, 1942. They were part of the first Cosel transport. Another 17 Cosel transports from the Netherlands would follow. Also 21 transports from France and Belgium stopped in Cosel.

The train stopped on August 29 in Cosel, about a thousand kilometers from Westerbork .About 170 men, 75 of whom are Limburgers, were pushed out of the train while being yelled and cursed at . A selection followed, and those who were not been deemed fit for work had to get back on the train. The train continued the journey to Auschwitz ,when it arrived on August 30,1942, the majority were murdered in the gas chambers.

The Limburg men who left Westerbork on August 28 were put on trucks in Cosel and ended up in Camp Sakrau, from where they went to various other camps in the region. Conditions in these camps were very different. The work was very hard, some of the Jewish men died from hunger, exhaustion, illness or accidents.

Abraham Spiero, a survivor who survived a later transport said about the ordeal:

“The train stopped in Cosel. That was a terrible thing there. Humanity stopped here. We, the men up to 50 years old, all had to sit down squatting. When the train had driven away, we were loaded onto trucks like animals.”

The men of the other 17 Cosel transports also ended up in a network of 177 camps near factories and construction sites. Some 1,500 forced laborers make fighter planes and war machinery, they worked in Krupp’s metalworks or IG Farben’s chemical plants.

Others were forced to work in the construction of railways and highways. Which was a big money earner for the German state and the companies.

The men who were no longer able to work were sent to Auschwitz-Birkenau, where they were gassed.

At the end of April 1943, most of the survivors were sent to Camp Blechhammer. Also father Pinehas Gans and son Philip Gans. They both came from the transport of November 2, 1942. Pinehas and Philip survived for a long time, and end up together in Camp Blechhammer. But when the camp is evacuated on January 21,1945 ,the prisoners are marched to Camp Gross-Rosen by foot. During the march or shortly after arrival at Gross Rosen both Gans men are murdered, on February 5,1945.

The Gans family in 1934 .Right in the picture is Pinehas(Piet)Gans, behind him is his wife and sitting next to him is his son Philip

In January 1945, of the ten thousand French, Belgian and Dutch forced laborers selected in Cosel, about two thousand were still alive. Most are in Camp Blechhammer. Eventually, only 873 men survive, less than ten percent of the men who got off at Cosel. The survival rate of the Dutch is even less, of the 3400 Dutch on the Cosel transports, 193 men survived. This also applied to the Limburg men who started their journey in Maastricht on 25 August 1942. Eleven of the 170 men of this first transport survived the forced labour.

On initiative of some people from Limburg there was finally a plaque unveiled at September 2, 2016 near the former goods store station of pre-war Cosel (Poland) and this as a remembrance of the so called Cosel Transports.

sources

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/artikel/transport-naar-cosel-limburgse-joden-op-weg-naar-de-ondergang

https://www.tracesofwar.com/sights/100746/Memorial-Cosel-Transports.htm

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May 25,1943-The day that 6500Dutch Jews annoyed the Nazis.

500 Jews respond to the German appeal and register for departure to camp Westerbork. They wait for hours for the special train that will transport them from Muiderpoort Station,Amsterdam, to Westerbork.

Of the 7,000 Jews who had to report to the Polderweg in Amsterdan that day for deportation to Westerbork, only 500 appeared that day, much to the irritation of the Germans.

Because most of the 7,000 Jews did not heed the call, a raid follows the next day. The Jewish quarter in the center is being cordoned off and homes are searched for those who ignored the call

A month later, the Jewish quarter in the center was evacuated and the Jews were forced to move to Amsterdam-East and South. Another major raid follows on June 20, 1943, this time completely secretly prepared. The Jews are startled by the noise of loudspeaker cars. They must gather at Daniel Willinkplein, Sarphatipark or Olympiaplein.

5542 Jews are registered by the employees of the camp administration who came especially from Camp Westerbork. Then they take the tram to the Muiderpoort station. They are also forced to board the train to Camp Westerbork and in the following weeks they are deported from Westerbork to the extermination camps.

The normality of the picture above makes it actually quite disturbing.On Sunday morning, June 20, 1943, the Nazis s held large raids in Amsterdam East and South. Early in the morning, hundreds of Nazi policemen, members of the Voluntary Relief Police and a few dozen men from the Jewish Ordedienst(order service) from Westerbork assisted in the raid. Jews were ordered to gather,packed and bagged in nearby places. This photo was taken secretly from a house in the Uiterwaardenstraat. Two empty cups of tea stand on the windowsill. In front of the door on the corner of Lekstraat and Kinderdijkstraat, Jews are gathered with their luggage. Two neighbors across the street hang out of the window to watch the events as well.

After this raid, almost all Jews from Amsterdam disappeared. Only the members of the Jewish Council and their families are still in the city. But not for long. During the raid on September 29, 1943, they too were arrested and taken to Camp Westerbork together with the last remaining Jews. The Germans declare Amsterdam ‘Jew-free’.

Deportation of Jews by train from Muiderpoort station in Amsterdam. A German soldier with a rifle checks that everything is in ‘order’. Netherlands, summer 1943.

sources

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/artikel/nsb-fotografen-leggen-jodenvervolging-vast

https://beeldbankwo2.nl/nl/beelden/detail/ff1516da-025a-11e7-904b-d89d6717b464/media/9f3ef422-a767-21ee-5c3f-459c091d6e02

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/artikel/de-razzia-van-20-juni-1943-het-verhaal-achter-de-foto

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

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They had a choice- They chose evil.

In this blog I will be addressing the issue of some of the so called Jewhunters, in the Netherlands. The main reason why they did what they did, wasn’t really because of some political ideology, their motive was much more simpler then that, it was greed.

Johannes Hendrik Feldmeijer was a Dutch Nazi politician, a member of the NSB. He was tasked with establishing and commanding the Nederlandsche SS.

The picture above is of a meeting of the Germanic SS in the Netherlands ,aka the Nederlandsche SS. Feldmeijer, sitting at the far left on the front row, and some of the members are listening to a speech by Rauter,the highest SS and Police Leader in the Netherlands,.To his right: Jan jansonius, Peter Kooymans, Jan van Efferen and Leo Broersen. In the second row, next to Wim Heubel, a number of notorious Jew hunters, namely Kees Kaptein, an unknown individual , Johan Meijer and Abraham Kaper, Head of the Jewish Affairs Bureau in Amsterdam.

This man may have a comedic appearance (ironically he has a similar hairstyle as a current Dutch politician), but make no mistake about it. This man was pure evil only driven by greed.

Wim Henneicke was part of the group of bounty hunters called Colonne Henneicke. He betrayed and robbed Jews; between 8,000 and 9,000 Jews were betrayed by the group in 1943. Towards the end of the war, he began to pass the names of other collaborators and infiltrators within the resistance to members of the resistance, probably in the hope of building friendly contacts with the resistance. Henneicke, however, did not live to see the end of the war. On December 8, 1944, he left his home in Amsterdam in the morning and was shot dead by an unknown member of the Amsterdam resistance .

He and his team would received a reward of 7.5 Dutch guilder, which translates into €42 or $50in today’s currency. The receipt below is for the reward of betraying 5 Dutch Jews.

I came across this film which was made by Harry Swaab. The film is about the daily life of fourteen Jewish people in hiding (the Swaab, Robinski and Hess families) on the third floor above nightclub Alcazar at 5 Thorbeckeplein in Amsterdam. They received help from Dirk Vreeswijk, owner of Alcazar, and his family. The movie was made in 1942-1943. Harry Swaab, one of the people in hiding and initiator for making the film, later said that the people in hiding made the film to combat boredom. The film shows the daily life of the people in hiding. That daily life included hiding oneself in case of danger. The hiding period lasted from mid-1942 to April 1943. They were betrayed and the Nazis raided the building with the help of Dutch Jew hunters from the Kolonne Henneicke at the end of April 1943. All those in hiding were arrested except for Leo Hess and Harry Swaab. It is fascinating to see how they dealt with daily life, even how to deal with intimacies.

Just after the war, Harry Swaab made a version with intertitles that explain the film. A “prologue” was also made with exterior shots of Rembrandtplein. These films are in the possession of the Jewish Historical Museum.

The following people appear in the film:
Greenheart, Bep (1922)
Gunther, Klara (1912-2005)
Hess, ..
Hess, Gerda
Hess, Leo
Robinski, Henric
Robinski, Jacob (1881-1943)
Robinski, Katjac
Robinski-Joseph, Ida Hedwig (1884-1943)
Swaab, Harry (1914-2005)
Swaab, Milly (1912-1994)
Swaab, Sophia (1908-1974)
Swaab, Truus (1912-1971)
Vreeswijk, Dirk (1891-1965)
Vreeswijk-van Schaik, Marie (1898-1979)
Period
mid 1942 – April 1943

sources

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/bron/https:%2F%2Fbeeldbankwo2.nl%2Fnl%2Fbeelden%2Fdetail%2Fd53a7ac2-0259-11e7-904b-d89d6717b464%2Fmedia%2F756fa92b-6824-02e1-7027-a30c92de89d8

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/thema/Jodenjagers?Foto%27s=1

Tinus Osendarp, medal winning Olympian and Nazi collaborator.

Without a shadow of a doubt, the star of the 1936 Olympic games was Jesse Owens. But there was another medal winner, who became more infamous then famous. He came 3rd behind in the Men’s 100 metres sprint, behind Jesse Owens and Ralph Metcalfe, He also ended 3 in the Men’s 200 metres sprint, behind Jesse Owens and Mack Robinson. The name of this double bronze medal winner is Tinus Osendarp.

In the 100 m final he ran 10.5 s, behind Americans Jesse Owens 10.3 s, and Ralph Metcalfe 10.4 s. Upon his return home Osendarp was called “the best white sprinter” by the Dutch press.

During the medal ceremony he had raised his arm in the Nazi salute.

Tinus (Martinus) Osendarp was born on 21 May 1916 in Delft as the son of Bernardus Osendarp, owner of an export company in fruit and vegetables. The Osendarp family soon moved to Rijswijk. The VUC football association flourished there, which also had a small athletics department. However, Tinus wanted to become a famous footballer above all else. With his innate speed, he was therefore ascribed a great future on the football field

Tinus Osendarp started sprinting for fun, and was discovered as a talent. His first success came in 1934, when he placed third in the 200 m at the inaugural European Championships, won by compatriot Chris Berger. Osendarp finished fifth in the 100 metres and won a second bronze medal in 4×100 metres relay (with Tjeerd Boersma, Chris Berger, and the non-Olympian Robert Jansen).

He increased his popularity by winning both the 100 and the 200 at the 1938 European Championships in Paris.

The basis for his future involvement in National Socialism was laid in Berlin, where he first came under the influence of SS propaganda.

Working as a policeman in The Hague, Osendarp joined the NSB (the Dutch National Socialist Party) in 1941, and the SS in 1943. Working for the Sicherheitsdienst (SD), he was involved with arrests of various resistance fighters. and helping in the deportation of Dutch Jews. The payment for each captured Jewish man or woman was 7.50 Dutch Guilders, which is the equivalent of $50 or €42 today. Many of those he arrested or betrayed were murdered.

In 1948, Osendarp was sentenced to 12 years in prison, but he was allowed to carry out his sentence by working in the coal mines, in the Southeast of the Netherlands, to support his family.

This is actually the street where I grew up, Convicted Nazis on the way back to the camps they stayed in after working in the Maurits Coal mine

He was released early in 1953 and moved to Limburg to work in the mines. In 1958 he also became athletics coach at Kimbria in Maastricht, and from 1972 he was a coach at Achilles-Top in Kerkrade. He died in 2002 at the age of 86 in Heerlen. Although he was a relatively ‘minor’ perpetrator, I think his sentence was much too lenient. He should have been jailed for life.

sources

http://www.olympedia.org/athletes/73863

Martinus “Tinus” Bernardus Osendarp, Dutch 1936 top athlete and Nazi collaborator.

https://web.archive.org/web/20200417093957/https://www.sports-reference.com/olympics/summer/1936/ATH/mens-100-metres.html

https://hyperleap.com/topic/Tinus_Osendarp

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

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Three murdered babies in Westerbork

I wish I could write a biography of these 3 murdered children, but I can’t. They didn’t live long enough to have a whole lot of details. In fact most of their lives could be written down on a small registration card.The one thing they have in common they were all murdered on May 20,1943.

I know there will be people who will argue that these children were not murdered, but they died. These kid were forcibly taken from the safety of their homes, they were mistreated and put in a horrible place. To me that constitutes murder.

Mindel Altman, was the oldest of the 3. She was born on April 16,1942.She was murdered on 20 May 1943 in Westerbork transit camp and was cremated on 21 May 1943.

The urn with her ashes was placed at the Jewish cemetery in Diemen on field U, row 5, grave no. 24.

José Velleman’s parents Benedictus and Rebekka were married on 14-12-1938 in Amsterdam. The young family settled on 20th of December 1938 at the address Jodenbreestraat 24, 3-hoog. Rebekka’s parents live a few houses away, at number 35. In the years before the war, Benedictus was a market trader. From April 1939 he sold stockings on the Waterlooplein market. Their son José was born on April 28, 1942. Benedictus then managed to get a job at the Jewish Council,

In February 1943 disaster struck for the young family. On 24-02-1943 they are deported to camp Vught. From there on 04-05-1943 Benedict is forced to work in the Aussenkommando Moerdijk. Shortly afterwards, Rebekka and José are deported to camp Westerbork, on May 8,1943. A day later . On 09-05-1943 they are registered in Westerbork. A few weeks later, on May 20-1943, young José is murdered in Westerbork, aged 2.

Judith van Sister, is the youngest of the 3, she was only 10 months old when she was murdered. She was born on July 16,1942.

sources

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Mindel-Altman/01/62929

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Judith-van-Sister/02/140827

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Jos%C3%A9-Velleman/01/36316

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/29464/mindel-altman

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/31370/judith-van-sister

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/31864/jos%C3%A9-velleman

One in Six Million

The definition of ‘one in a million’ is : a person or thing that is very unusual, special, or admired.

Herman Wertheim was certainly that. However, sadly he was also one in six million. He was one of the six million Jews who were murdered during the Holocaust.

Herman Wertheim was born on February 17, 1912 in Strijp, the Netherlands . He was the eldest son of Hester and Jacob Wertheim. Herman worked as a tobacco trader for A. J. van Beek in Rotterdam.

Herman married Esther Rosenfeld from Amsterdam on August 4, 1936.

The first child, a daughter whom they called Margaretha Beatrix, died as an infant on 6 February 1938. In 1939 a son was born: Jaap.

During the war, the family went into hiding, all three in different places. Son Jaap is brought to Laren in 1942 at the age of three. He is taken in by the couple Tom and Anneke van Blaaderen. Esther is hiding in Eindhoven with the Hoekstra family in the Fuutlaan and also temporarily with the Boudrez family. Herman Wertheim attempted to flee to England. He ought false work papers for an amount of between 750 and 1000 guilders. Herman Wertheim ended up in Paris in June 1942. On his way to England, however, he was betrayed by a seller of false papers and brought back to the Netherlands where he was charged on 14 August 1942 with ‘unauthorized crossing of the Belgian-Dutch border’. On the same day Herman was taken to Westerbork. From there he was deported on 24 August 1942 to Auschwitz where he was murdered almost two years later, on 15 May 1944. His wife Esther and son Jaap survived the war. Source: Remember the names, September 18 Foundation.

It is impossible for me to remember all the millions who were murdered during the Holocaust. But I believe, remembering the individuals will have a bigger impact.

Herman and I both married a beautiful wife. If I was born in 1912, our fates could have easily been the same.

sources

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/29231/herman-wertheim

https://www.oorlogsbronnen.nl/tijdlijn/Herman-Wertheim/01/13520

Simon Blitz-Murdered Doctor

I have long given up on trying to understand the logic behind some of the Nazis actions. For example the mass murder of Doctors, the Nazis themselves could have used them for their own medical needs.

Simon Blitz was born on June 28, 1907 in the Watergraafsmeer( The Watergraafsmeer is a polder in the Netherlands. It was reclaimed in 1629} hs parents were Josephus Blitz (1880 -1938) and Betsij van Wezel (1876-1947). He had 3 brothers and 2 sisters: Abraham, Ruben and Benjamin, Elisabeth and Cato. He studied medicine in Amsterdam and sat his medical final exams on April 29, 1936. Dr. Simon Blitz lived and practiced at 188 Zuider Amstellaan in Amsterdam.

He married Klara Elisabeth Erwteman in Amsterdam in October 1937. Together they had a child who was born in 1939. In December 1940 Simon and Klara divorced.

At least seventeen Jewish doctors were arrested, deported and sometimes even murdered by the Nazis during the first years of occupation, until July 1942.

On February 22, 1941, Simon Blitz was arrested during a raid in Amsterdam. Between 23 and 27, he was imprisoned in Camp Schoorl.Between February 27, 1941 and February 28, Simon was transported from Camp Schoorl to Buchenwald. There were 409 in total on that transport

Simon Blitz was murdered on May 12, 1941 in Buchenwald. He was was 33 years old. His wife and child survived the war.

Ann approximate 137 Jewish Doctors were either killed or murdered during World War 2. The hate of the Nazis had such a far reaching impact, that undoubtedly would also have impacted themselves.

sources

https://westerborkportretten.nl/westerborkportretten/simon-blitz

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/nl/page/154124/simon-blitz

Westerbork Hospital-Creating the illusion of normal life.

When Westerbork was built in 1939 as a refugee center for Jewish refugees from Germany and Austria, it also included a hospital.

The hospital grounds were originally known as Centraal Vluchtelingenkamp Westerbork, a camp for refugees arriving mainly from the neighboring country, Germany. It was those refugees themselves who in 1939 built Barrack No.12 and converted it into a hospital equipped with little more than tweezers and scissors.From May 1940 to July 1942, the camp stayed under Dutch administration. Under the Dutch, conditions were still reasonably good.

When the Nazis took it over in 1942 however things changed. Westerbork became a transit camp, an stop over as such, before the prisoners were deported to the extermination camps. But it was important for the Nazis to keep the illusion going that things were still fairly normal. Therefor the Hospital played an important role.

While the doctors and managers had their heads in the sand, the harsh reality finally hit home in October 1942. A tsunami of new patients, including their doctors and nurses, inundated the camp. Jewish hospitals and nursing homes had been emptied straight into Westerbork’s hospital. This flooded the hospital’s capacity, created shortages, chaos, and one disease outbreak after the other. Both patients and personnel who fell ill found it hard to recover. Chronic fatigue was endemic. Camp disease and relentless diarrhea were common. Tuberculosis, measles, diphtheria, yellow fever, whooping cough, scarlet fever, and lice all reigned supreme. Quarantine measures became necessary, and provided one last reason to delay transport. Escape was now virtually impossible. Suicide attempts increased to around four a week, and though the medical staff again managed to save most, the psychiatric ward in Barrack No. 3 exploded.

The disturbing thing is that people who were too sick to travel to the death camps, first had to be nursed back to a reasonable level of health, in order to be send to the extermination camps.

No one was safe in Westerbork and it didn’t matter what age you were. Whether you were an infant, like the children in the picture above, or a 102 year old woman. You eventually would be send to your death.

The photo aboveshows Mrs. Klara Brush-Engelsman. She was born in Amsterdam on April 30, 1842 and was to be murdered in Theresienstadt(although some sources say Auschwitz)at the age of 102, on October 12, 1944.
The oldest Dutch victim of the Nazi terror

Of course, the question was then also why these elderly people had to be deported for the ‘Arbeitseinsatz’. Statements by Nazis that older women could still change diapers were, of course, inhumane.

sources

https://www.geni.com/people/Klara-Engelsman/6000000088276943915

https://www.joodsmonument.nl/en/page/228136/klara-borstel-engelsman#intro

https://hekint.org/2017/02/22/westerbork-hospital-a-blessing-in-disguise/

World War 2 in the Netherlands from a German perspective.

Karl Rauscher was part of the German Air Force, the Luftwaffe. Specifically from the so-called Werftabteilung; tasked with repair and scrapping of downed aircraft. Before the war he had been a professional photographer

During the war years he was stationed in a large number of European countries. He took nearly 1500 photographs in those countries .

These are some photographs he took while in the Netherlands.

In 1940, Rauscher’s division was stationed for a few months at the Fliegerhorst Schellingwoude, Amsterdam.

The original caption reads: ‘Amsterdam.’
Rauscher and some members of his division are visiting the city of Amsterdam.

Rauscher and some members of his division are visiting the city of Amsterdam. Koningsplein towards the Spui.

The original caption reads: ‘Ju88 Absturz Schellinwade, November 1940’. A Junker 88 has crashed. Rauscher’s team is responsible for its salvage. During the occupation Schellingwoude was a support point for seaplanes of the German Kriegsmarine for laying sea mines and rescuing crashed pilots. The artificial island of Zeeburg, located in the IJmond to the east of Amsterdam, was designed as a small camouflaged fortress until 1945. This so-called Fliegerhorst Schellingwoude was developed into the largest base for seaplanes and boats in the Netherlands.

Captioned’Horst’

Also captioned’Horst’

The original caption reads: ‘Volendam, 1940’. Rauscher and some members of his division visit the city of Volendam.

source

https://beeldbankwo2.nl/nl/verhalen/detail/e08538e9-73d1-4f48-9d5d-7ebf0853cd5f/image/38