It would have been easy to turn a blind eye, but Fr.Lichtenberg didn’t.

Fr Lichtenberg

It would be so easy for ordinary citizens to turn a blind eye to the Holocaust, and indeed many did. I do not judge these people, because  faced with a similar situation I don’t know how I would react. Anyone who was critical against the Nazi regime, could face a prison sentence of worse death. And it really didn’t take that much to be sentenced to death. I can therefore understand why people ignored the things happening around them, for many it was a way to ensure survival.

There were those though how saw the injustice and evil and spoke out against it publicly. People like the Catholic Priest Fr. Bernhard Lichtenberg.

Ever since the Nazis came to power he spoke out against them. After the pogrom of November 9, 1938,known as Kristallnacht he said the following public prayer in the St. Hedwig’s Cathedral in Berlin.

cathredal

“We know what was yesterday. We do not know what will be tomorrow. But we have experienced what happened today. Outside, the Temple is burning. That is also a House of God.”

Lichtenberg  prayed publicly for the persecuted Jews at the daily Vespers service. Bishop Konrad von Preysing later entrusted Lichtenberg with the task of helping the Jewish community of the city, via the Welfare Office of the Berlin Diocesan Authority (“Hilfswerk”). In theory non-Aryan Christians were to be supported by the “Fund”. However  the aid was provided to every Jewish citizen who contacted the office.

Lichtenberg protested in person to Nazi officials against the arrest and killing of the sick and mentally ill.In 1941 he wrote a letter to the  chief physician of the Reich, Minister of Public Health Leonardo Conti, in relation to the T4 euthanasia program.

Conti

“I, as a human being, a Christian, a priest, and a German, demand of you, Chief Physician of the Reich, that you answer for the crimes that have been perpetrated at your bidding, and with your consent, and which will call forth the vengeance of the Lord on the heads of the German people.”

Initially the Nazis saw him more of a nuisance then a threat but his  efforts to help the Jews and his calls to put an end to the immoral actions of the Nazis grew stronger. To silence him, the Nazis arrested him on October 23, 1941, and was sentenced to 2 years in prison.But because of his unyielding opposition he was sent to Dachau. However he never reached Dachau.He collapsed and died while in transit, on 5 November 1943 in Hof, Bavaria.

BUST

He died for being a decent Human being , who spoke out about the evil he saw around him.

I am not a Catholic and I don’t believe in saints but of I had to believe in saints, he would be top of my list.

On 7 July 2004 Yad Vashem recognized Bernhard Lichtenberg as a Righteous Among the Nations.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

Sources

The Second World War: A Complete History

Bundesarchiv

Yad Vashem

 

Advertisements

The Tulp brothers-Evil and Good.

Februari staking

The story of the two Tulp brothers is bizarre and yet intriguing in more way than one. They were half brothers, the older brother took the path of evil although he was a police officer, Where the younger one risked his life by resisting the evil his brother was part of.

Sybren

Sybren Tulp was born on March 29,1891 in Leeuwarden, Friesland, in the Northwest of the Netherlands. When he was 14 his parents divorced and his Father re-married a year later.

In 1912 he graduated from the Royal Military academy and  in 1916 hewas commissioned as an officer with the KNIL-Royal Dutch Indonesian Army and served in Indonesia.

In 1932 he tool command of the Dutch colonial Army  in Surinam, a Dutch colony in South America. In 1938 he returned to Europe, spending 8 months in Germany and Italy. In 1939 he settled in The Haue,the Netherlands, and joined the NSB (Dutch Nazi Party)). In late February 1941, after the February strike, in Amsterdam, the German occupying authorities appointed him Inspector-General of the municipal police in Amsterdam. He organized the force along Nazi operational lines and set up an Office for Jewish affairs (Bureau Joodse Zaken) which took action against Jews whenever they ‘violated’ various prohibitions, like the not wearing the Yellow star of David.

star
When the deportations began in the summer of 1942, Sybren Tulp personally supervised the eviction of Jews from their homes and their transfer to assembly points en route to camps like Westerbork and Vught. He convinced the Nazi authorities that it would be better to have Dutch police  be in charge of this rather  than to entrust it to German police because the Dutch police had a better understanding of the city.

From September 1942 onward there were also nightly raids on Jewish houses and properties, Sybke Tulip would also often supervise those raids.

On October 3rd 1942, he got very sick and died less then 3 weeks later on October 22nd.

Haring

Haring Tulp was the younger half brother of Sybren. He was born on May 26,1909.

Haring was involved with the communist resistance in the Netherlands, He distributed illegal newspapers and magazines like . “Het Noorderlicht”(Northern Light) and “de Waarheid” (the Truth). On May 28th,1941 he was caught and arrested by the SD and locked up in PDL Amersfoort.

AMERSFOORT

I don’t know this for certain and am working on an assumption but I am certain since his brother had such a high position in the Police, he must have known about his younger brother’s arrest, and most have ignored it.

From Amersfoort, Haring got transported to Buchenwald ,where he arrived on February 24,1942 and was designated prisoner number 1127. A few months later on the 6th of July, he was deported to Dachau where he was assigned prisoner number 31169.

He only stayed in Dachau for a few months because by the 19th of September,1942 he was back in Buchenwald.

He died in Buchenwald on October 19th,1942, three days before his brother Sybren died.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

Sources

Verzetsmuseum

Yad Vashem

 

Sigmund Rascher’s end

Rascher

Sigmund Rascher was without a shadow if a doubt one of the most evil men of the Nazi regime. He was an SS Doctor in service of the Luftwaffe and was one of Himmler’s favourites. Rascher’s wife the actress ,Karoline “Nini” Diehl, was a friend of Himmler, rumours had it that she was Himmler’s mistress but this was never verified.

Rascher conducted deadly experiments on the effect of high altitude , freezing and blood coagulation on human subjects in Dachau, this all under the patronage of Heinrich Himmler.

dachau

Aside from the extremely cruel and deadly experiments he also used human skin to make saddles. It is no wonder that he was executed on April 26,1945.

However you’d be wrong to think he was executed by the allies or for the aforementioned crimes.

In order to impress Himmler, Rascher claimed  that population growth could be sped up by extending female childbearing age, Rascher publicized  that his wife had given birth to three children even after reaching 48 years of age. Himmler so impressed by this used a photograph of Rascher’s family as propaganda material.

But, during the  fourth “pregnancy,” of Mrs. Rascher , she was caught attempting to kidnap a baby and was arrested . A subsequent  investigation revealed that her other three children had been either bought or kidnapped. Himmler was furious and felt betrayed, Rascher was arrested in April 1944.

Additionally to the fraudulent childbearing scheme it was also accused of financial irregularities, the murder of his former lab assistant, and scientific fraud.

On April 26,1945 just 3 days before US troops reached Dachau, Rascher was executed by SS-Hauptscharführer Theodor Bongartz ,allegedly on Himmler’s direct order.

DACHAU US TROOPS

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

 

 

 

Postcard from Dachau

Postcard

Receiving a post card is always a nice event. Be it for your birthday, or a card from someone on their holiday, or a seasons greeting , or just someone keeping in touch.

It is like getting a present which has emotional rather then a monetary value. And often  you want to repay this act of kindness, by also sending something back, maybe a parcel or a magazine or just another card.

But what if the card comes from one of the most desperate places on earth, and what if there are a whole set of rule to take in consideration before you can send anything. What if the card was received from Dachau?

I can’t read the name of the sender clearly but I believe the sender was Joh. Messinger Ludwig in Block 20 and the addressee was Ignaz Messinger from Vienna.

It may look like an ordinary card but there is so much more to this simple piece of thick paper. To the addressee it is a sign of life of the person who sent it to him. It is also an indication that the life in Dachau was in total control of those who ran the camp.

On the left side of the card is a set of rules for correspondence to inmates in the camp.

  1. Every inmate can only receive or send 2 letters or cards per month to relatives. The letter send to the inmates must be clearly legible and should be written in ink and can only be 15 lines or less.Allowed is only one letterhead of normal size.Envelopes have to be unlined.A letter can only be stamped with 5 stamps of 12 pfennig.Everything else is forbidden and will be subjected to confiscation. Postcards can only have 10 lines, photographs are not permitted to be used as postcards.
  2. Sending money is allowed
  3. Newspapers are allowed but can only be ordered via the post office of the Concentration Camp Dachau.
  4. Parcels are not allowed. Inmates are able to but everything they need in the camp.
  5. Requests to the camp management  for inmates to be released are futile.
  6. Permission to speak and visits from prisoners of the Concentration camp is fundamentally forbidden.

All post which does not adhere to these rules will be destroyed.

 

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

The Sea water experiments-Evil Science.

sea water

In 1798 the poem “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” was published by he English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The most famous line of the poem is “Water, water, every where,Nor any drop to drink.”

There are several theories in relation to the inspiration of the poem but the above mentioned line refers to the fact that one or more sailors were stranded in the ocean without any fresh water. Indicating that although there was an abundance of water, it was not fir for human consumption. Because drinking sea water can lead to dehydration among other ailments and eventually to death.

This knowledge did not stop Dr. Hans Eppinger and Dr. Wilhelm Beiglböck.

From July 1944 to September 1944, experiments were carried out at the Dachau concentration camp to see if it was possible to the viability of make sea water fit for consumption.Another goal was The goal  was to establish if the prisoners would suffer any severe physical symptoms or death within a period of 6–12 days.

At one stage ,a group of roughly 90 Roma prisoners were deprived of food and given nothing but sea water to drink.Witnesses reported that the test subjects  had been seen licking the floors they had mopped in an attempt to get some water. Sometimes chemicals were added to the water to eliminate the salty taste

Many of the subjects who received  sea water ended up suffering excruciating torture, diarrhea, convulsions, hallucinations, foaming at the mouth, and in most cases, madness or death.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

Excursion to Dachau

day trip

One might be forgiven that the title implies a current school trip to Dachau, but the title refers to another kind of trip to the notorious death camp.

The Dutch Nazis, the NSB. did not have the same level of hatred against, Jews,Roma and disabled people as their German counterpart. Himmler was aware of this but he needed support for the SS from the Dutch.

In January 1941 ,Himmler invited the leader of the NSB,Anton Mussert to Munich.

Mussert and Himmler

Most of the NSB leadership accompanied Mussert on his journey to Munich.The aim of the meeting was to make Mussert enthusiastic for the SS so he would encourage Dutch men to join them.

As part of the trip an excursion was planned to Dachau, but to ensure the Dutch delegation would not be shocked by what they saw there, the whole excursion was staged on January 20,1941.

They were shown good dormitories, great sanitary utilities and a well equipped  kitchen with high quality and fresh food. In short the wool was pulled over their eyes.

In an interview in jail in 1946, Mussert stated.

“That time when I visited Dachau, it was beautiful. People were walking around in the open air, they were busy gardening.baking and painting. They were all smiling. Later on of course I realized that this was all staged”

Although they did not have the same level of evilness as the NSDAP, the NSB were nevertheless willing participants in the Holocaust. Mussert may not have been fully aware what was going on in Dachau in January 1941, since it was reasonably early on in the war, but he knew exactly what the fate of the Jews was later on and he facilitated the occupying Nazi regime in any way he could.

The whole trip was a propaganda exercise. It is also a clear indication that the Nazis knew exactly that what they were doing was wrong, for they even hid their crimes for their ‘friends’.

Dachau visit

 

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

Source

NIOD

 

Topf and Sons-Business of Death

Oven

The Nazis would never have been able to commit the crimes they committed if they hadn’t received the cooperation from businesses that supplied to them.

Technically some companies may not have been directly involved in the killing of Jews.Roma’s,Homosexuals and others, but by facilitating the third reich the played an equal part to the Holocaust.

J.A. Topf and Sons (German: J.A. Topf & Söhne) was an engineering company which was founded in Erfurt in 1878. It had a variety of products including chimneys  and incinerators.

poster

In 1939 the company decided to go into business with Hitler and his cronies.Not only did they design and built the ovens for the crematoria in several death camps, they also made improvements to make the ovens work more efficiently.

Kurt Prüfer, was the head of Topf & Söhne’s small crematoria department, he was the main oven designer. Kurt designed and developed a two-muffle transportable oven in September 1939, which was delivered to Dachau concentration camp in November 1939.To facilitate multiple bodies to be burned simultaneously even though  that this was still illegal under German law.

2 muffled

The company’s partnership with the Nazis, in the Holocaust reached its peak with the production of ovens for Auschwitz

Between August 1940 and  May 1942, the companybuilt 3 double-muffle ovens at Auschwitz Camp I.  Read the last few words again’built 3 double-muffle ovens at Auschwitz Camp I’ This means they built them on site.

In October 1941, the SS ordered five three-muffle ovens for the new Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp , where it was initially was thought that an estimated 1000+ people per day would be killed. At the time  125,000 Soviet prisoners of war.were imprisoned in Auschwitz II, and it was estimated  that with the use of the new ovens, these prisoners of war  could all be killed and disposed of in about four months.

In an internal memo by Kurt Prüfer he explains that he has told Krone, who has just returned from Auschwitz, that the camp can be provided with enough cremation muffles to bring the cremation capacity up to 2650 per day, or 80,000 per month. However, Prüfer notes: “Mr. K said that this number of muffles is not yet sufficient; we should deliver more ovens as quickly as possible.”

po

Topf & Söhne’ also designed and provided ventilation systems to remove Zyklon B from the underground gas chambers.

At least 4 fitters from Topf & Söhne’ traveled to Auschwitz to supervise the installation of the systems and to ensure they worked properly. For this it meant they had  to observe the murder of Jews.

Kurt Prüfer also visited the camps to inspect the operation of Topf products. He himself, with the blessing  of the company’s owners, continued to facilitate to the needs of the SS On October 26, 1942 he applied ,via the company, for a patent for a four-storey crematorium complete with conveyor belts intended to drastically enhance the speed at which bodies could be burned.

design

Although employees of the company witnessed the actual murder of Jews and others they did nothing about it, in fact they ensured that the disposal of the bodies would happen quicker and more efficient. There was a clear lack of humanity in these people.

There is a principle in supply chain management about ‘bottlenecks’ ,bottlenecks determine the throughput of a supply chain. Basically your supply chain is just as fast as your  bottleneck, ie constraint.

The disposal of the bodies was the bottleneck in all death camps. Even if the engineers of Topf and Sons, could not stop the supply of ovens to the Nazi regime, they could have designed them less efficient thus creating a bigger bottleneck, therefor saving lives, but they didn’t .

After Prüfer was first arrested in 1945, one of the co-owners of the company Ludwig Topf committed suicide in  his suicide note he said  that “I was always decent.” His brother, Ernst-Wolfgang, fled to West Germany where he attempted to reestablish the company. The company went bankrupt in May 1963. Prüfer died in prison.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

 

The first to die in Dachau

Dachau

It is often thought that the killing of prisoners and for the majority Jews  in concentration camps , only started after the start of World War II. But in fact it started in April of 1933, only ten weeks after Hitler was appointed  chancellor of Germany.

appointed

It is sad enough that  young men were killed on April 12 1933, it is even sadder to think that one of them, and in fact the very first to get killed wasn’t even supposed to have been in Germany at the time.

Arthur Kahn, a 21-year-old Jewish German medical student had enrolled in Edinburgh University in Scotland, he had returned to , Germany to pick up his student records at the University of Wurzburg.

Athur Kahn

Arthur Kahn together with Ernst Goldmann, Rudolf Benario, and Erwin Kahn(not related), had been arrested around the 22th of March 1933, for being  communist party members  and were send to Dachau.Although Arthur Kahn had no Communist affiliation, he had at been at one point  involved in an anti-Nazi organization

Upon arrival in Dachau, the men were identified as Jews and tortured. On April 12, a group of drunken SS officers handed the four young men shovels and made them march to the outskirts of the camp, where they were executed Arthur Kahn was the first one shot. Making him the first Holocaust victim according to historian Timothy Ryback. Goldman and Benario followed and died immediately, Erwin Kahn was also shot but died from his injuries four days later in a nearby Hospital. He did get a chance to make a statement disputing that the 4 men had tried to escape, for that was the reason given for the executions.

Postwar investigation  established that Robert Erspenmüller,the camp’s deputy commander, and two other SS guards, Hans Burner and Max Schmidt, committed the murders.

 

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

Sources

The National Interest

Schreibdasauf.info

The New Republic

Arbeit Macht Frei

1

Even if you don’t know any German you will know what those 3 words mean. Arbeit macht Frei- Work will set you free.

3 simple words which had such a great impact. The Nazis turned these words, which when you look at them basically had an honorable intend, into the most despicable words ever uttered.

They gave a false sense of hope to those who arrived at the concentration camps and death camps. For it made them believe if they would work hard  and do as their were told they would be set free.

3

Many didn’t even get to see those words over the gates for they had already perished on the transport to Auschwitz,Dachau or any of the other camps.

Arbeit macht Frei where it should have said “Hier wirst du sterben” -Here you will die.

2

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

The Dachau Reprisals

FelixSparks2

++++contains some graphic images++++++++

After the liberation of Dachau on the 29th of April 1945 a number of SS guards were tortured and executed by US troops,without a trial.

Many people refer to this as a war crime and technically it was, but the horrors these troops had witnessed was beyond imagination, The brutality was unprecedented. To be honest if I had been in there shoes I probably would have done the same.

Eyewitness: Doctor David Wilsey, an anesthesiologist, was a US Army captain when he took part in the liberation of Dachau – then saw SS guards being killed by GIs as the horrors of the camp unfolded..David W

He wrote to wife Emily that he did not have a ‘single disturbed emotion’ because he saw the Nazis as ‘SS Beasts’ that deserved to be slaughtered.

GIs tortured them by making them stand for hours in Heil Hitler salutes and pouring iced water over their naked backs before they were shot dead.

execution

This was a picture taken by Capt Wilsey in his letters to his wife, Emily. On the back he wrote: ‘just a sample of what we saw & lived for days after we hit Dachau. Piles like this all over!bodiesOn  On the back of the picture above, Capt Wiley wrote of the corpses: ‘This, madam (and all the world) is just a sample of what we saw and lived for days after we hit Dachau. Some in this pile are not quite dead. Nice?’

back

Upon moving deeper into the complex, and the prisoner area itself, more bodies were found. Some had been dead for hours and days before the camp’s capture and lay where they had died. Soldiers reported seeing a row of cement structures that contained rooms full of hundreds of naked and barely clothed dead bodies piled floor to ceiling, a coal-fired crematorium, and a gas chamber “The stench of death was overpowering.

Lt. Col. Joseph Whitaker, the Seventh Army’s Assistant Inspector General, was subsequently ordered to investigate after witnesses came forward testifying about the killings. He issued a report on June 8, 1945, called the “Investigation of Alleged Mistreatment of German Guards at Dachau” and also known as “the I.G. Report”. In 1991, an archived copy was found in the National Archives in Washington, D.C. and was made public.

Killed_SS_Cammo_Dachau

Female prisoners at Dachau wave to their liberators

Female_Dachau_Waving

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

Sources

Mail Online

USHMM