The Dentist of Auschwitz

2020-05-03

I will not say too much about Benjamin Jacobs aka Bronek Jakubowicz or Berek Jakubowicz. As the title suggests he was a dentist, but he also is a survivor. Not only did he survive Buchenwald and Mittelbau-Dora concentration camps, he also survived Auschwitz, a death march and the sinking of SS Cap Arcona, which was bombed by the RAF killing thousands.

One of the reasons why I won’t saying too much about Benjamin Jacobs is because he wrote a book titled “The Dentist of Auschwitz” a book which I only recently received as a present and haven’t read yet.

One thing I will say is that  one of the jobs he had as the dentist of Auschwitz,  was extracting gold teeth  from the corpses of those who were killed, I really cannot fathom how I didn’t suffered greatly from this. However this does show his incredible mental strength , which would have contributed to his survival. I am pretty sure I wouldn’t have.

In later interviews and I presume in his book he did say “I heard the voices of broken hearts and crushed souls” regarding to that gruesome task.

He died on January 30th ,2004 aged 84.

 

Sources

https://archive.org/details/dentistofauschwi00jaco

https://muse.jhu.edu/book/3531

 

Death march Buchenwald

2020-02-28

One of the things I could never understand was the death marches. The most of them happened near the end of the war. Even from a strategically point of view they made no sense. Then again a lot of actions taken by the Nazis didn’t make a lot of sense. So may of their policies and strategies were fueled by hate.

The Buchenwald Death March took place between April 7th and 10, 1945. It was a match of about 300km. 28,500 to 30,000 inmates were marched to 3 other camps. Dachau,Flossenbürg, and Theresienstadt. on a route via Jena, Eisenberg, Bad Köstritz, and Gera.

Of the 28,500-30,000 inmates approximately 9,000 died.

I just can’t imagine the fear and the  anxiety they must have felt. Those who fell down were either shot or left to die. Most of these people were weakened because of the  horrific treatment they got in the Buchenwald. Those who dies were walked to death, just sit back for a minute and imagine that.

The remaining 21,000 inmates who were left behind in Buchenwald were liberated on April 11,1945.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

 

soutces

https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/death-marches-1

NIOD

 

This is what hate does.

+++++ CONTAINS GRAPHIC IMAGES++++++++

Jedem

I don’t like posting horrific pictures in relation to the Holocaust, or any other subject for that matter. And I don’t like it for 2 reasons

Firstly I find it physically hard to stomach and generally gives me nightmares.

Secondly we have come to live in a society where some people get offended by everything, even by the truth or rather especially by the truth, Instead of facing it they complain about it and try everything to get that truth removed.

However to me neither of those reasons are good enough  not to show what hate really can do.

Buchenwald concentration camp had the particular cynical motto on their gate “Jedem das Seine” or Each their own.

Below are 2 picture which were found by a US soldier after the camp was liberated. The pictures were taken by the Nazis who ran the camp. This what they meant with Each their own. You would not do it to an animal.

Horror

buchenwald 2

As I said earlier I don’t like posting graphic images. I think it is much more powerful to personalize the stories. But sometimes we have to be reminded by the gruesome horrors caused by hate.

 

Adolf Englender killed in Auschwitz

Adolf

It is good to write detailed stories of those who were murdered in the Holocaust, to ensure they get remembered. But sometimes it is just as powerful when you keep it a brief description, not because their story is not worthy enough to be told, because it is, But just to illustrate that each one of these poor souls were ordinary people, just like you and me just living their own lives not bothering anyone, yet this was enough for them to be killed.

Adolf Englender

Born December 22 1891 in Hameln

Arrested in 1939 send to Hannover Prison

Send to Buchenwald in 1939

Deported to Auschwitz in 1942

Killed in Auschwitz October 31,1942.

He was only a few months younger then I am now, when he was killed.

stone

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

Sex during the Holocaust

Brothel

I know this is an awkward subject and some people may have difficulties even reading past the first sentence. However just because it is awkward and  controversial doesn’t mean it is not important.

Sex is one of the most primal human instincts and urges it is how we manage to reproduce, but is more then that it is something that makes us feel good. The orgasm is  the peak of sexual excitement. It is a powerful feeling of physical pleasure and sensation. And sex  is something we even need  for our general physical and mental  health.

Capture

I have often wondered how it must have been during the Holocaust and especially in the camps, was it even possible?

The aim of the Nazi regime was to eradicate the Jews and to a lesser degree Gypsies and other ethnic groups. Aside from the mass murder they also deprived those who worked in the camps from having sex, therefor ensuring they would not reproduce. Often they also would be subjected to sterilization

In all documentations  I have read about the Holocaust, I have not discovered any indication that the deprivation of sex  was ever considered as a crime, in the post war trials.Which I find strange because  It was of course a heinous crime to deprive anyone from one of the most human of human rights.

If anyone was caught having sex there would be severe punishments. Sexual contact between prisoners was extremely rare. Men and women were mostly separated in the camps but in some work groups they would sometimes work together.

Rudolf Vrba’s  recounts some exceptions, in his book “I Escaped From Auschwitz “. On  one occasion a  male kapo of a male inmate work group had a longing  for sex with the female kapo of a female work group working in the same operation, sorting the belongings of the victims who had been murdered in the gas chambers. The female kapo was an attractive, young Hungarian girl who agreed to have sex  if she was given some specified gifts. Vrba was instructed  in  one casewas to transport the gifts to the female kapo before the sexual encounter. Unfortunately for Vrba, he was caught ,the gifts, taken from the belongings of the murdered individuals, were considered property of the Reich He was beaten severely because he hadn’t reported the 2 Kapos.

Kanada

In Joan Ringlehiem’s book “Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust.” one survivor recalled “I had two enemies: Nazis and men.” in the same book another survivor gave her account describes that  besides the Nazis, men acted like “animals” too. She stated  that one day, the SS officers decided to let the men go to the side where the women were. At this point in time, all they wanted to do was have sex.

Germans were not allowed to have sex with any one deemed by the Nazis as ‘sub human’,anyone caught having sex with a Jew or any other ethnic minority not considered Aryan, could result in severe penalties, even the death penalty.

Young attractive women were often forced into working in brothels  to work as sex slaves.Two of the largest were in Auschwitz, in Nazi-occupied Poland, with the main brothel nicknamed ‘Puff’ situated just behind the Arbeit Macht Frei entrance in Block 24.

24

An estimated  21 women prisoners worked in the Auschwitz brothels which were known as Sonderbauten (special buildings). The final brothel was opened in 1945.Emaciated prisoners chosen for the brothels were given a humiliating medical check and had disinfectant cream smeared over their genitals.

But there were brothels in other camps too, the picture at the top of the blog is a picture of a brothel in Buchenwald.

The brothels were created as an incentive for prisoners to collaborate, although these was  mostly by Kapos,   criminals who would use the brothels.

The Auschwitz brothel was fitted with peep holes used by SS guards  to ensure the inmates only used the missionary position.

Heinrich Himmler  had initially intended the brothels to be used to ‘convert’ gay  prisoners by teaching them  “the joys of the opposite sex”,

Homosexuals of course were another group persecuted by the Nazi regime. That would mainly apply yo gay man and not so much to lesbians, there were only a few lesbians persecuted and this was not even the primary reason it usually was  because they were Jewish rather then lesbian. Female homosexuality was basically not acknowledged of something that existed.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

Sources

USHMM

The Guardian

Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust.”

Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust.”

This building had once stabled 80 horses. There were 1,200 men in it, five to a bunk.

Buchenwaldf

The title is a line from a report by Edward R. Murrow, a CBS radio news reporter.He  reported largely from Europe during World War II, and was the first reporter on scene following the liberation of the Buchenwald concentration camp The report was broadcast on  Sunday, April 15, 1945, in Studio B-4 of the BBC, only a few days after the liberation.

I could include pictures of what the allied troops encountered in April 1945. Pictures of piles of corpses or emaciated inmates, and there are plenty. But I won’t do that. I have decided to tell the story with some of the excerpts from the report. When you initially read it then probably just like me, you won’t be that shocked,maybe a bit disturbed but not shocked.

This is probably because the horrors written down, don’t trigger a response. However when you read it again and leave the words sink in, the horrors become so clear and they will stick with you more so then any picture could do.

Edward

Report from Edward R. Murrow

“There surged around me an evil-smelling stink, men and boys reached out to touch me. They were in rags and the remnants of uniforms. Death already had marked many of them, but they were smiling with their eyes. I looked out over the mass of men to the green fields beyond, where well-fed Germans were ploughing.

I asked to see one of the barracks. It happened to be occupied by Czechoslovaks. When I entered, men crowded around, tried to lift me to their shoulders. They were too weak. Many of them could not get out of bed. I was told that this building had once stabled 80 horses. There were 1,200 men in it, five to a bunk. The stink was beyond all description.

barn

We went to the hospital. It was full. The doctor told me that 200 had died the day before. I asked the cause of death. He shrugged and said: ‘tuberculosis, starvation, fatigue and there are many who have no desire to live. It is very difficult’ He pulled back the blanket from a man’s feet to show me how swollen they were. The man was dead. Most of the patients could not move.

In another part of the camp they showed me the children, hundreds of them. Some were only 6 years old. One rolled up his sleeves, showed me his number. It was tattooed on his arm. B-6030, it was. The others showed me their numbers. They will carry them till they die. An elderly man standing beside me said: “The children- enemies of the state!” I could see their ribs through their thin shirts.

Children

They called the doctor. We inspected his records. There were only names in the little black book, nothing more. Nothing about who these men were, what they had done, or hoped. Behind the names of those who had died, there was a cross. I counted them. They totaled 242. 242 out of 1,200, in one month.

As we walked out into the courtyard, a man fell dead. Two others, they must have been over 60, were crawling toward the latrine. I saw it, but will not describe it.”

Jedem

Unlike Auschwitz or other camps Buchenwald’s gate did not say “Arbeit macht Frei” but ” Jedem das Seine” which translates to “to each his own” or “to each what he deserves”. No one in Buchenwald got what they deserved. No one deserves to be treated as a subhuman. Nor did they deserve to be murdered for being Jewish,Communist or just critical of the Nazi regime.

 

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

 

Sources

Scrapbook pages

Jewish Virtual Library

Berkley Library

 

 

The Tulp brothers-Evil and Good.

Februari staking

The story of the two Tulp brothers is bizarre and yet intriguing in more way than one. They were half brothers, the older brother took the path of evil although he was a police officer, Where the younger one risked his life by resisting the evil his brother was part of.

Sybren

Sybren Tulp was born on March 29,1891 in Leeuwarden, Friesland, in the Northwest of the Netherlands. When he was 14 his parents divorced and his Father re-married a year later.

In 1912 he graduated from the Royal Military academy and  in 1916 he was commissioned as an officer with the KNIL-Royal Dutch Indonesian Army and served in Indonesia.

In 1932 he took command of the Dutch colonial Army  in Surinam, a Dutch colony in South America. In 1938 he returned to Europe, spending 8 months in Germany and Italy. In 1939 he settled in The Hague,the Netherlands, and joined the NSB (Dutch Nazi Party)). In late February 1941, after the February strike, in Amsterdam, the German occupying authorities appointed him Inspector-General of the municipal police in Amsterdam. He organized the force along Nazi operational lines and set up an Office for Jewish affairs (Bureau Joodse Zaken) which took action against Jews whenever they ‘violated’ various prohibitions, like the not wearing the Yellow star of David.

star
When the deportations began in the summer of 1942, Sybren Tulp personally supervised the eviction of Jews from their homes and their transfer to assembly points en route to camps like Westerbork and Vught. He convinced the Nazi authorities that it would be better to have Dutch police  be in charge of this rather  than to entrust it to German police because the Dutch police had a better understanding of the city.

From September 1942 onward there were also nightly raids on Jewish houses and properties, Sybke Tulip would also often supervise those raids.

On October 3rd 1942, he got very sick and died less then 3 weeks later on October 22nd.

Haring

Haring Tulp was the younger half brother of Sybren. He was born on May 26,1909.

Haring was involved with the communist resistance in the Netherlands, He distributed illegal newspapers and magazines like . “Het Noorderlicht”(Northern Light) and “de Waarheid” (the Truth). On May 28th,1941 he was caught and arrested by the SD and locked up in PDL Amersfoort.

AMERSFOORT

I don’t know this for certain and am working on an assumption but I am certain since his brother had such a high position in the Police, he must have known about his younger brother’s arrest, and most have ignored it.

From Amersfoort, Haring got transported to Buchenwald ,where he arrived on February 24,1942 and was designated prisoner number 1127. A few months later on the 6th of July, he was deported to Dachau where he was assigned prisoner number 31169.

He only stayed in Dachau for a few months because by the 19th of September,1942 he was back in Buchenwald.

He died in Buchenwald on October 19th,1942, three days before his brother Sybren died.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

Sources

Verzetsmuseum

Yad Vashem

 

Consulting the stars in the Third Reich.

astrology

Cherry-picking is defined in the Cambridge dictionary as- to choose only the best or most suitable from a group of people or things. For example: Policymakers will cherry-pick ideas from the study, and commit to implementing only the easiest and cheapest ones. In other words they pick what suits them best.

The Nazis were very good at this. In 1934 The Nazis officially banned fortune telling. Which made the publication of any almanacs and astrological journals illegal.

But yet along comes Karl Ernst Krafft ,a Swiss astrologer, and he is welcomed with open arms.

karl

On November 2,1939,Krafft wrote a letter to his friend ,Dr Heinrich Fesel, who was an associate of Heinrich Himmler, in the letter Krafft claimed that the Führer’s life would be in danger between 7 and 10 November 1939.Fesel ignored the letter, however  on November 8th, a bomb exploded in a Munich beer hall. Hitler was unharmed, but Fesel contacted Rudolf Hess, who had Krafft arrested.

beer hall

After investigation Krafft was found to be innocent and was released. After his release Joseph Goebbels summoned Krafft to the Reich Propaganda ministry. Goebbels had been intrigued by Nostradamus and brought Krafft into the ministy to decipher Nostradamus’ prophecies.

Krafft strongly believed  that Nostradamus’ prophecies boded well for the Third Reich.  Thousands of pamphlets based upon his interpretations of the quatrains were translated and distributed in six languages,Krafft himself had done the French translation.

It is believed that in spring 1940,Krafft gave a private horoscope reading to Hitler via one Hitler’s aides

Although any form of astrology or fortune telling was banned since 1934 there were many highly places Nazis who believed in the  occult. Rudolf Hess had been a member of the Thule society,an organization dedicated to the occult.

When Rudolf Hess made his astonishing flight to Scotland in 1941. Hitler was furious. Since Hess was the biggest occult supporter of them all. Hitler ordered a purge of astrologers and occultists,including Krafft. This time he spent a year in prison.

Krafft did predict a few more events fairly accurately. One of his predictions after having  seen the charts of both Rommel and Bernard Montgomery, adversaries in the desert war, was: “this man Montgomery’s chart is certainly stronger than Rommel’s”

monty

As the end of the war was drawing nearer he wrote that British bombs would very soon destroy the Propaganda ministry in Berlin. The Gestapo arrested him.

He was incarcerated in foul conditions and eventually contracted typhus.Karl Ernst Krafft died 8 January 1945, en route to Buchenwald concentration camp.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

 

 

The Buchenwald Song and the brutal murder of the man who wrote it.

Song

Fritz Löhner-Beda was  an  Austrian born Jewish librettist, lyricist and writer. Born Wildenschwert, Bohemia but he grew up in one of Europe’s most cultural cities,Vienna. Alas Vienna’s culture was to become tainted to a degree.

In the 1920s, Löhner-Beda became one of the most popular and  sought-after librettists and lyricists in Vienna. This popularity though meant nothing on April 1,1938, less then 3 weeks after the Anschluss, (annexation of Austria by the Nazis).

AH ANSCHLUSS

On April 1, 1938 Löhner-Beda was arrested and deported to Dachau concentration camp.His Viennese neighbors and fan base did very little to help him.Just over 5 months later on September 23 1938 he was deported to Buchenwald.

While in Buchenwald, at the end of 1938, he wrote Das Buchenwald lied(the Buchenwald song) together with Hermann Leopoldi an Austrian born Jewish composer. Below is the text to the chorus of the song

“O Buchenwald, ich kann dich nicht vergessen,
weil du mein Schicksal bist.
Wer dich verließ, der kann es erst ermessen,
wie wundervoll die Freiheit ist!
O Buchenwald, wir jammern nicht und klagen,
und was auch unser Schicksal sei,
wir wollen trotzdem Ja zum Leben sagen,
denn einmal kommt der Tag, dann sind wir frei!”

English Translation:

“O Buchenwald, I cannot forget you,
because you are my fate.
Only he who leaves you can appreciate
how wonderful freedom is!
O Buchenwald, we don’t cry and complain;
and whatever our destiny may be,
we nevertheless shall say ‘yes’ to life:
for once the day comes, we shall be free!”

Viktor Frankl used the line “trotzdem Ja zum Leben sagen”(nevertheless shall say ‘yes’ to life) as the German title for his book “Man’s Search for Meaning”. written in 1946.

ja zum leben

On October 17, 1942,  Löhner-Beda was deported to the Monowitz concentration camp, a sub-camp of Auschwitz. The SS established the camp in October 1942 at the behest of I.G. Farben executives to provide slave labor for their Buna Werke (Buna Works) industrial complex.

monowitz

On December 4,1942 Fritz Löhner-Beda had already been ill. he was accused of not working hard enough. Because of this he was beaten to death by a Kapo. Just imagine that, beaten to death that is a different kind of evil. I know the Kapo’s were forced to do bad things in order to survive themselves, but beating someone to death that takes a particular kind of person.

So many people were killed during the Holocaust but with that also so much cultural heritage has vanished.

Fritz Löhner-Beda could have contributed so much more for the betterment of humankind.Who knows how many classic songs he could have written, or how many more award winning plays and screenplays. His death didn’t only end his life it also deprived the world of a great artist.

Fritz

Ending this blog with a version of the song and one more time the line “we nevertheless shall say ‘yes’ to life” Let’s do that , let us all say yes to life despite whatever comes our way, We owe to Fritz and to ourselves.

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

Margaret Bourke-White-Documenting the Horrors of Buchenwald.

+++++CONTAINS GRAPHIC IMAGES+++++++

mbs buchenwald

The Heroes who are often forgotten are those who arrived in the concentration camps with a camera. They took pictures of horrors which nobody should have to witness but yet these were also the pictures that everyone had to witness, because they bore evidence of the evil crimes committed by a regime with a warped ideology.

Margaret Bourke White is one of those Heroes.

margaret

She was an American photographer and documentary photographer . In April 1945 she arrived at Buchenwald. From her experience taking photographs in the concentration camp she said afterwards “Using a camera was almost a relief. It interposed a slight barrier between myself and the horror in front of me.”

Below are some of her photographs.

Survivors

camp

Citizens from Weimar confronted with the horrors of Buchenwald

buchen

corpses

Survivors

barracks

Donation

I am passionate about my site and I know a you all like reading my blogs. I have been doing this at no cost and will continue to do so. All I ask is for a voluntary donation of $2 ,however if you are not in a position to do so I can fully understand, maybe next time then. Thanks To donate click on the credit/debit card icon of the card you will use. If you want to donate more then $2 just add a higher number in the box left from the paypal link. Many thanks

$2.00

 

Sources

TIME Magazine