A Family Murdered— February 1, 1943

Julius, Esther, Renate and Brigitte Chaim

Sometimes I struggle with finding a suitable title for a post. As it was for this post, but then he thought using just the raw data as the title is probably the best tribute for this family.

The Family is the Chaim family
Julius Chaim moved to Nijmegen on October 15, 1940, from Amsterdam. He was married to Esther Tannenhaus and was the father of three daughters, Renate, Elfride and Brigitte. The family originally came from Germany. In 1939, two daughters had already been sent to the Netherlands and taken care of in children’s homes or with families. At the end of the 1930s, German Jews often did not get permission to emigrate to the Netherlands. To be able to flee Germany, some parents saw no other option other than to send their children to the Netherlands on their own, which may mean, that the parents were given permission at a later date and allowed to enter the Netherlands. The parents and the youngest daughter arrived in the Netherlands in 1940.

Elfride and Renate Chaim were sent to the Netherlands ahead of their parents and younger sibling in 1939, as was often the case in those days. The Netherlands hardly let any Jews in, but children who arrived alone were taken care of by families or placed in children’s homes. The idea was that the children would be safe in the Netherlands and there was hope that the rest of the family would also be able to settle in the Netherlands.

On October 9, 1940, the parents Julius Chaim and Esther Chaim-Tannenhaus and their three daughters settled in Nijmegen, coming from Haarlem. The family originally came from Duisburg. Brigitte was the youngest of the daughters and in 1940 she arrived in the Netherlands with her parents.

The Chaim-Tannenhaus family was arrested and on December 31, 1942, they were deported to Westerbork. From there they were put on Transport #46 to Auschwitz. The transport consisted of all Jews, including 42 children. The majority were murdered in the gas chambers, and only two men survived.

Julius Chaim was born in Tarnow, Poland, on March 21, 1892, and murdered in Auschwitz on February 1st, 1943. He reached the age of 50 years.

Esther Chaim-Tannenhaus was born in Bajazesty, Romania on May 14, 1897. She was murdered in Auschwitz on February 1, 1943. She reached the age of 45 years.

Renate Chaim was born in Kaiserslautern, Germany on February 16, 1928. She was murdered in Auschwitz on February 1, 1943, at the age of 14 years.

Elfride Chaim was born in Kaiserslautern, Germany on February 17 1930. She was 12 years old when she was murdered in Auschwitz on February 1, 1943.

Brigitte Brigithe Chaim was born in Duisburg, Germany on January 19, 1935. She was eight years old when murdered in Auschwitz on February 1, 1943.




Babies Deported to Westerbork Concentration Camp

The one I can’t get to terms with, and even refuse to get to terms with, is the murder of babies during the Holocaust.

I know one of the reasons behind it was the purification of the Aryan race. But, how pure are you as a race when you murder babies? Another reason was that they were afraid that when these babies grew up, they would possibly look for revenge for the death of their families. The only time you expect revenge is when you know you did something wrong.

The picture above is of Roosje van der Hal. She was born in Groningen on 17 March 1942 and murdered in Sobibor on 21 May 1943. She reached the age of one.

Nehemia Levy Cohen was born in Amsterdam on 20 December 1940. She was murdered in Sobibor on 7 May 1943. She had reached two years of age.

Both babies had been deported to Westerbork on 25 January 1943. From there they were deported to Sobibor where they both were killed. These were only two of the 1.5 million children. The scary thing is that there have been genocides, albeit on a smaller scale, after the Holocaust where babies once again were victims.

I want you all to look into the faces of these two sweet angels and ask yourself, “What can I do to stop this from happening again?”



Behind the Star

Starting in May 1942, wearing a yellow fabric star in the Netherlands, called the “Star of David,” was made compulsory by the Nazis. This measure made it easy to identify Jewish people and was designed to stigmatize and dehumanize them. This was not a new idea; since medieval times many other societies had forced their Jewish citizens to wear badges to identify themselves. With the coming of the French Revolution in the 18th century and Jewish emancipation in the 19th century, the “Jewish badge” disappeared in Western Europe.

However, in the 1930s the Nazis brought it back to Germany, and in May 1942 in the Netherlands. During the war, it was compulsory in all occupied countries. The one thing that puzzles me today is the eagerness of so many people and groups to put ‘badges’ on themselves. In my opinion, the only badge that matters is that of a Human Being, and the only rule that should apply is mutual respect for each other.

Behind every star was a life, a story.

The picture at the start of this post is of the admin team in Westerbork.

Group photo of the De Miranda and Lachmann families in the garden of De Miranda’s house on Sterrelaan in Hilversum, 1942.

From left to right: Alexander (Lex) de Miranda, 7-year-old Michael (Max) Lachmann, Heinz (Hans) Lachmann, standing 12-year-old Frank de Miranda, Anny de Miranda-Meijler and Tea Lachmann-Warszawski on the beach chair. The photo was probably taken by the other son Hugo de Miranda. Both sons tried to flee to Switzerland via France but were arrested. None of the family survived the war. The Lachmann family went into hiding in Limburg with the help of Pastor Henri Vullinghs and survived the war. Henri Vullinghs was a pastor in Grashoek and Grubbenvorst in Limburg and a Dutch resistance fighter during World War II. He was one of the largest organizers of pilot aid and hiding in the entire province of Limburg.

On 1 May 1944 sexton Stappers in Grubbenvorst was warned that the Sicherheitspolizei was on its way from Venlo to arrest the pastor. Stappers hurried to the monastery where Vullinghs lived because his own parsonage had been hit by a bomb. Unfortunately, he did not find him at home because the pastor had already left for the church on his bicycle. Just before the church on the street, Vullinghs was arrested and imprisoned. On 1 June 1944, he was transferred to Camp Vught where he was severely mistreated. On September 6, 1944, he was deported to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp and from there he went to the Bergen-Belsen camp, where he arrived at the end of March 1945, critically ill. Two weeks later he died there of dysentery.

Camp Westerbork. Outgoing transport, with a converted freight train, April 1943.
Nearly 107,000 people were deported from camp Westerbork in the 97 transports. On 15 July 1942, the first transport left for Auschwitz-Birkenau. From 2 March 1943–16 November 1943, there was a weekly rhythm: every Tuesday a train departed with a thousand to sometimes more than three thousand people. The last transport left on 13 September 1944.

Sander Waterman in boxing position. The Star of David is visible on his shorts. He was born in London on 10 June 1914, He was a boxer and boxed at Joop Cosman’s boxing school at the Jodenhouttuinen.

Because of his birth, he had a British passport despite his parents being Dutch. Sander was in the resistance. He was arrested for forging identity cards, but his brother Morest had done so. If he had said that, they would both have been imprisoned, so he kept quiet about it. Unfortunately, his brother Morest was murdered in Mauthausen.
Sander survived the war just like his wife Elisabeth Gobetz and their two children Sal (1941) and Joop (1943). The Waterman family was deported to Westerbork in 1943, where Joop was born, and then to Bergen-Belsen.

The British passport initially ensured that the family could stay for a longer period of time in Westerbork.

Johanna Winnik, at the age of about eight at her house on the Afrikanerplein in Amsterdam’s Transvaal neighbourhood, 1942. She was murdered at Sobibor on 2 April 1943 at the age of 8 years.

Annie de Jong-Wijnman and Maurits (Mau) de Jong from Zaltbommel with the Star of David on their wedding day, Sunday, August 23, 1942, in the synagogue N. Molstraat 13 in The Hague. They didn’t even get to celebrate their first anniversary. They were both killed on 16 July 1943 in Sobibor.

These were just a few of the many who were forced to wear the star of David. The pictures all came from the NIOD. They also have a theme on their website titled behind the star, I added a few more details.





Born and Murdered in Captivity

There are no ratings in relation to which Holocaust story is saddest. Each death was a tragedy and a reminder of how cruel man can be. However, there are some stories that punch right in the gut.

Friedel Levie was the daughter of Jozef Levie and Else Metzger. She was born in Westerbork transit camp. There are no cute baby pictures of Friedel only a certificate mentioning her birth and her death.

Friedel’s mother, Else Levie-Metzger, was 32 years old and pregnant from Friedel during the deportation to Westerbork, in early October 1942. After her flight from Germany in 1938 to the Netherlands, Else lived with her husband Joseph and daughter Marga at the H.W. Mesdagstraat 13 in Groningen. Friedel’s grandparents and aunt Rosa also lived at this address.

Friedel was born in camp Westerbork on 6 January 1943. Her sister Marga was then six years old. By that point, almost all of her father’s family has already been killed. When Friedel was four months old, her father took his own life in Westerbork.
Three weeks later, Friedel, her mother and her sister were deported to Sobibor, where all three were murdered immediately upon arrival on 21 May 1943.

Friedel was four months old when she was murdered.




Transport List Westerbork

Westerbork had been opened by the Dutch authorities during the summer of 1939 to shelter and house the Jewish refugees coming from Germany. The first refugees arrived in Westerbork on October 9, 1939.

After Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the Netherlands, Westerbork became the main concentration camp in the Netherlands

From 1942 to 1944, the majority of Jews in the Netherlands were sent to Westerbork before they were deported to be killed at Auschwitz, Sobibor and other camps. More than 100 trains departed from Camp Westerbork in the direction of the camps in Eastern and Mid-Europe. On 15-16 July 1942, the first prisoners were deported to Auschwitz. 2,030 Jews, among which were many orphaned children. The start of a long line of victims. In the first months, the train departed twice a week: on Monday and Friday. In 1943, Tuesday was most frequently the day of transport. Prior to every transport, the prisoners who had to go were selected. The selection was a matter for the camp commander, who gladly passed on the task to the Jewish employees of the camp administration.

From 15 July 1942, until 13 September 1944, the Nazis deported approximately 100,000 Jews from the Netherlands via Westerbork.

This is just one transport list. This transport list is a reflection of the original. On arrival, several dozen people were selected for work in camps in the Lublin district. Vital signs were received from seven persons: two from Dorohucza and five from Lublin. It dates from 27 April 1943. The date of birth is next to the names. The oldest person on the list was 99, the youngest was only five months old.

Aalst van-Rabbie Anna 6.10.97
Aalsvel Hartog 8.8.63
Aalsvel-de Vries Hendrika 12.7.92
Aandagt Levie 6.9.94
Aandagt-Slagter Betje 24.5.96
Abas Alfred 1.4.05
Abas-Swaap Jeannette 21.6.00
Abas Rudolf 22.10.30
Abas Willy 16.10.28
Abas Pierre 30.12.69
Abbe van Marianne 5.7.01
Abbe van-Dresden Vrouwtje 17.11.62
Aband-Lehman Bertha 8.7.93
Abend Jozef 16.5.87
Alberg Hendrikus 16.6.74
Alberg-Alberge Sybilla 9.4.64
Ancona d’-Lobatto Hilda 11.5.69
Alter-de Jong Bertha 19.12.65
Aluin-Stijsel Schoontje 15.2.70
Ameroitgen van Andries 9.2.23
Appelboom Samuel 19.2.13
Appelboom-van Straten Henriette 1.12.03
Appelboom Jacob 3.3.42
Asch Fanny 29.5.80
Asch Lea 25.3.71
Auerbach Maximilian 4.4.68
Auherhaan-van der Molen Sara 6.4.83
Bacharach Meijer 11.6.97
Bacharach-van Spier Belia 15.9.00
Bachrach Grietje 16.3.33
Baer Bernhard 27.5.95
Baer-Walg Saartje 31.12.96
Baer Kaethe 20.7.29
Baer Lsidor 31.7.61
Bak Adele 27.12.85
Bamberger Abraham 27.8.69
Bamberger-van Dam Rebecca 19.1.65
Barber Joel 5.12.89
Barends Kitty 8.9.24
Barends Norma 5.6.23
Bartends-Cohen Jetta 28.1.95
Baruch Herman 18.6.83
Baruch-Blumenthal Amanda 17.10.82
Beek-Blitz Betje 12.11.67
Beek van-Rijndorp Henriette 26.5.87
Beek van Mozes 19.8.78
Beem van David 6.1.89
Beem Eduard 7.9.82
Beem van-Grushaber Matje 3.4.84
Beem-Kohn Rosa 14.11.82
Beer de Israel 26.2.61
Beer de-Velleman Leentje 27.4.64
Beer de-Cohen Rebecca 17.10.82
Beesemer Katharina 12.1.82
Beifus Irma 6.11.12
Berg van de Mozes 10.12.64
Berklou-Wolf Alida 30.12.05
Berklou Elisabeth 28.7.34
Beridou Henny 13.7.28
Berldou Josef 4.10.36
Bever van-de Vries Bardina 28.12.83
Bierman-Bouwman Elisabeth 9.1.77
Bianca-Frank Rosette 15.8.71
Bleekroode-van Zanten Saartje 20.1.75
Bleekroode Simon 15.3.71
Bleekveld-Cohen Heintje 26.3.80
Bleekveld Mozes 22.1.79
Blez-Heiboom Klara 19.3.83
Blitz Jacob 29.12.03
Blitz-Swaab Roosje 2.10.07
Blitz Evalina 17.9.29
Blitz Lea 22.6.74
Blitz Naatje 6.12.69
Bloch-de Beer Josefina 14.10.01
Blok-de Levi Betje 21.12.01
Blok Henriette 14.4.36
Blok Jacob 31.5.42
Blok Josef 16.9.02
Blok Simon 23.12.31
Bluemlein Hanna 8.6.76
Boas Coenrad 12.4.61
Boas Julius 25.10.85
Boele van-Wiek van der Flora 9.11.82
Boesnack Mozes 5.2.12
Bosnack-da Silva Rosa Sara 7.12.12
Boutelje-Gans Bloeme 24.6.87
Brager Frieda 7.11.16
Brandon-Lobatto Sara 1.2.64
Brave de-Velleman Sara 30.6.73
Bril-Bril Roosje 24.8.68
Bril Salomon 12.2.64
Broekema Saartje 22.5.04
Bromet Philip 14.2.86
Bromet Sara 17.8.19
Bromet-Wolf Frouke 7.1.74
Bruin de Coenraad 4.8.84
Bruin-Italie Debora 5.2.62
Bruin de Hanna 18.5.10
Buitenkant-Parser Eva 30.11.62
Buseck-Bloch Johanna 25.1.76
Cahn Else 26.1.98
Cahn Leo 21.8.67
Cahn-Fribourg Emilie 2.9.79
Calish-Cohen Sophie 30.3.62
Caneel-Bamberg Carolina 28.4.12
Caneel Mozes 11.4.38
Caneel Salomon 8.10.05
Canes-Glasbeek Leentje 16.10.82
Canes Rachel 9.12.21
Carwalho Hartog 9.6.78
Carwalho Raphael 4.7.80
Carwalho Sipora 28.2.74
Cassel Vera 15.3.23
Cats Abraham 5.3.98
Cats-Sluis Mathilda 10.6.98
Cats Emanuel 5.3.30
Chelem-Behr Hanna 16.7.71
Courant Hartog 9.8.89
Coerant-Fransman Fransje 26.10.91
Courant Louis 21.8.23
Cohen-Dzislowski Anna 20.2.73
Cohen-Steinweg Emma 14.2.60
Cohen Henry 17.6.69
Cohen Jonas 3.3.03
Cohen Marie 1.8.20
Cohen de Lara Michael 20.2.75
Cohen de Lara-Veerman Klaartje 19.11.87
Cohen Nathan 18.3.73
Cohen-Horn Chaja 9.10.79
Cohen-Reich Pauline 18.3.66
Cohen Rika 15.1.89
Cohen Walli 23.3.09
Cohn Hermann 9.4.68
Cok Mietje 8.1.01
Coster Nathan 13’4.03
Costima-van Leeuwen Sophia 4.6.06
Cunha da Simon 2.3.03
Dikker Hartog 13.1.75
Druijf-de Rooij Rachel 18.11.80
Dam van-Mendels Naatje 15.11.82
Davids-Poppers Saartje 8.9.69
Dotscb Betty 8.4.07
Dresden Machiel 12.6.82
Drukker Levie 10.3.83
Dukker-Groen Henriette 10.11.84
Dikker-de Beer Esther 11.5.77
Davidson-Schilt Jeannette 15.2.77
Dasberg-Korper Esther 22.3.06
Dasberg Duifje 28.7.39
Daelen van Simon 9.I2.12
Daelen van-Witsenhuijsen Alice 4.5.17
Dam van Sara 7.1.95
Dikker Louis 30.4.66
Dasberg Meijer 18.3.30
Dasberg Joel 20.6.32
Deen-van-der Velde Rozette 17.5.97
Deen Margaretha 18.4.28
Dasberg-van Thijn Roosje 13.2.95
Dasberg Elisabeth 4.9.31
Dasberg-Katzenstein Sophie 16.2.64
Danielson Lion 15.11.76
Danielson-Colthof Henriette 7.8.71
Dasberg Joseph 4.7.26
Dormits Wolf 10.9.82
Dotsch-Stoppelman Ilse 10.3.18
Dagloonder Abraham 26.6.69
Drucker Adolf 6.12.79
Drucker-Wreszinsky Martha 22.3.82
Druijf Joseph 19.2.87
Deen Mozes 22.2.91
Ebenspanger-Hoffmann Flora 19.12.75
Eger-Foijer Carolina 22.1.60
Elburg Sara 18.11.90
Elekan -Weslij Sophie 23.6.58
Elion Mata 26.12.13
Elion-Wijnkoop Rosalie 11.3.82
Englander-Keesje Femmetje 6.1.72
Elsas-Vogel Clara 14.6.02
Elsas Kaatje 5.7.27
Elsas Maria 24.12.28
Elsas Gonda 30.12.25
Emanuel Joseph 1.5.76
Emanuel-Davidson Reintie 31.12.74
Embden van-Hamerslag Esther 19.9.22
Embden van Sara 3.3.41
Esso van-van Leer Elisabeth 24.4.64
Falk-Levie Minna 12.4.68
Feitsma Benjamin 31.1.64
Feitsma-van der Sluis Esther 5.11.73
Fontein-Frank Juda 17.5.79
Fraenkel-Wolffenberg Minny 9.7.67
Frank Aaron 29.12.82
Frank David 26.4.69
Frank-Herzfeld Ida 4.10.67
Frank-Sluijzer Fijtje 16.6.80
Frank-van-Rood Neeltje 1.1.68
Franken Judith 17.2-92
Frankenhuis-Blitz Judith 7.3.69
Frankfort Joseph 26.8.64
Fransman-Overst Grietje 11.5.84
Fransman Leontine 2.7.23
Fransman Meijer 4.3.94
Fransman-Dasberg Elisabeth 6.12.93
Fransman-van Frank Therese 19.12.75
Frederikstadt-Bos Elisabeth 1.8.94
Frederikstadt Isaac 23.12.43
Fresco-Keizer Judik 24.4.74
Fresco Nathan 9.4.12
Fresco-Woudstra Scboontje 28.3.05
Fresco John 27.6.42
Fresco Abraham 29.12.39
Fresco Salomon 11.10.60
Friedheim Frans 29.6.82
Friedheim-Maas Johanna 4.5.91
Fromm-Gattman Selma 18.9.77
Fuld Betje 26.10.64
Fulder-Meijer Bertha 5.3.82
Fulder Salomon 16.1.69
Furth-van Vriesland Doortje 24.5.68
Carbowicz Mozes 14.1.89
Carbowicz-Rodbielowicz Szyna 15.4.95
Gelder van Abraham 1.8.77
Gelder van Isaak 11.6.64
Gelder van-van Dantzig Marianne 28.12.74
Gelder van Minkje 22.1.98
Gelder van-Frijda Sara 22.7.78
Gelder van-Polak Vrouwtje 7.12.89
Gelderen van Elisabeth 8.12.24
Gelderen van Mozes 25.2-75
Gelderen van-van Raalte Vroukie 26.5.81
Gich van-Kuyper Elisabeth 3.1.87
Glas van der Mozes 3.4.67
Gobez Machiel 7.7.76
Gobes-Frenkel Regina 20.10.90
Godefroi Henriette 13.12.01
Godefroi Sophia 1.1.96
Godschalk Jacob 16.6.93
Goedel Saartje 5.7.02
Goldberg Leyser 21.1.72
Goldberi-Goblenser Mina 4.7.69
Goldberg-Cohn Rebecca 3.5.72
Goldschmidt Aron 17.5.86
Goldschmidt-Goldstein Jenny 1.3.96
Gompels-de Blanc Suzanna 1.7.82
Gomperts Marianne 3.5.79
Goudenburg Meier 9.4.99
Goudsmit Edmont 13.12.95
Goudsmit Israel 5.1.90
Coudsmit-van Geuns Rosina 8.2.71
Grand le Truitje 14.8.05
Grysaart-van Naarden Judith 6.5.10
Grysaard Alexander 5.9.32
Grysaard Barend 30.3.31
Grysaard Betje 21.9.39
Grysaard Gretha 13.4.36
Grysaard Louis 11.6.37
Grysaard Mozes 19.3.07
Groen-Valenca Alida 16.12.75
Groen Hartog 26.1.83
Groen Henriette 13.10.89
Groen-Loonstyn Marianne 4.9.63
Groemnan-Rosenzweig Hedwig 24.11.79
Groente Esther 5.11.12
Groente Salomon 11.5.83
Groente-Emden Clara 2.1.90
Groot de-Danneberg aara 10.6.72
Groot de Joseph 19.9.60
Groot de Kaatje 18.8.90
Groot de-Papelsdorf Maria 29.1.58
Groot de Sara 24.6.95
Grootkerk-Brandel Klaartje 31.12.64
Gruenwaid Walter 24.9.01
Gruenwald-de Laeuw Marianne 5.12.91
Haaff de-Goudsmit Bertha 12.12.95
Haaff de Clara 7.12.13
Haaff de Nathan 19.12.74
Haas de-Heilbuth Bertha 1.8.63
Haas Louis 15.2.56
Hakkert-van der Stam Rebecca 27.7.83
Hakkert Salomon 17.2.82
Ham van der Maurits 2.4.85
Ham van der-de Vries Veronika 8.11.88
Hamburger David 31.5.65
Hamburger-Hakker Femmetje 13.4.61
Hamburger Regina 5.2.25
Hammerschlag-Lenson Klaartje 25.12.72
Hammel-Weil Hermine 63.7.7
Haringman-Lazerus Sophia 2.1.72
Hartman-van der Rijn Rozetta 12.11.89
Hart Elisabeth 5.11.28
Hartog Aron 3.9.94
Hartog Klaatje 24.6.98
Hartog David 11.11.82
Hartog David 21.3.24
Hanog Jansje 22.9.25
Hartog Rebecca 13.12.92
Hartog-van Loer Rozette 7.2.67
Hedemann Johann 20.3.96
Hegt-Wolff Flora 27.10.75
Hegt Henriette 25.3.81
Hegt Jonas 21.2.79
Heim van der Rosalie 9.7.71
Heim van der Simon 18.7.86
Heim van der-Zwarts Sara 25.8.02
Hayman-Goettinger Rine 9.6.71
Heijman Julie 14.6.68
Heimann Martin 10.2.00
Heijmans Arie 3.6.76
Heymans Jett& 1.12.70
Heijman-van Raap Rosalie 30.12.79
Heyneman-Stemberg Bertha 15.12.77
Hes Albert 24.4.78
Hes Hanna 14.10.06
Hes-Jacobsohn Henriette 8.5.96
Hes Iwan 13.10.70
Heiman Samuel 1.6.58
Hiner-Appelbaum Bertha 16.1.05
Hilversum-Nabarro Branca 12.1.73
Hilversum Levie 2.4.76
Hftm van-van Dantzig Margaretha 2.3.81
Hirsch-Coopman Brunetta 28.9.64
Hirschfeld Sigesmund 2.10.66
Hilversum Betsy 30.4.19
Hilversum Esther 13.11.42
Hoenig Szaja 9.6.88
Hoenig-Kempler Blina 16.1.00
Hoenig Sara 17.535
Hoenig Swane 7.11.39
Holthausen-Rosendaal Lis 2.4.07
Hoop de Charles 9.1.74
Hoop de Hartog 11.1.67
Hoop de- Digtmaker Rebecca 2.3.66
Hoop de- Cohen Susanna 16.8.69
Hopfenmaier Max 5.6.92
Hopfenmaier-Aufseeser Betty 26.6.91
Horst van der-van Witsen Jacoba 14.4.87
Huisman Joseph 6.5.84
Huisman-Simmeren Esther 23.1.80
Huisman-Fresco Sara 24.5.13
Izaak-Wessel Duifje 27.8.68
Izaak-van Witsen Flora 2.11.84
Jacob-de Groot Etkc 21.7.58
Jacobi-Bluemfeld Klara 31.8.59
Jacobi Otto 20.6.56
Jacobs David 13.4.87
Jacobs Jacobus 14.11.00
Jacobs-Maritz Saartje 14.3.05
Jacobs Louis 5.4.27
Jacobs-van Messel Lea 12.11.67
Jakobs Rachel 14.9.72
Joel-Olman Aaltje 7.9.01
Joel Wilhelmina 14.8.28
Jong de Joseph 5.9.67
Jong de Rebeca 2.12.82
Josephij-Behrendt Frieda 24.8.77
Juedel-Borger Frieda 4.11.68
Judels Abraham 6.6.75
Kahane Jacob 13.6.88
Kahane-Hom Cedlie 15.9.88
Knhnne Rachel 10.1.26
Kahn Eugen 13.8.95
Kahn-Danziger Irma 11.10.92
Kahn Bernhard 20.7.40
Kahn Leon 15.6.78
Kahn-Emmerich Paula 25.9.77
Kahnmann-Rotschild Hanchen 15.8.69
Kalf Lion 7.11.97
Klaf-de Wilde Rachel 29.1.00
Kalf Alfred 26.6.29
Kalf Ida 16.3.27
Kalker Jacques 4.12.66
Kalker-Hes Marianne 10.1.69
Emmerik van Abraham 14.2.61
Kanes-Zwalf Lea 10.12.75
Kannegieter Abraham 9.4.08
Kannegieter-Kokemoot Elias 13.ZO9
Kannegieter Jacob 13.83
Kannegieter Maurits 11.1.40
Kannegieter-Ziekenoppasser Rachel 17.1189
Kanteman Johanna 18.11.06
Kanteman Marcus 17.5.76
Kanteman-Goldstain Marthe 11.9.81
Kanteman Sally 9.1.75
Kats-Wagner Gella 9.2.82
Katz Richard 11.12.82
Katzenstein-Felsenthal Ida 20.10.87
Katzenstein Siegfried 4.5.86
Keizer- David 5.8.75
Keizer-van Wijnbergen Katharina 16.6.78
Kiek Maurits 14.11.83
Kiek-Manheim Marianne 14.2.82
Kesnig Eliazar 12.4.10
Kiek-Salomons Sophia 28.12.79
Kirghijm-Blitz Grietje 22.1.76
Knoop Sam ????
Knoop-Rijksman Esther 14.1.79
Knoop Jonas 23.8.78
Knoop Louis 7.8.03
Knoop-Krant Eva 22.10.03
Knoop Nanny 21.1.28
Knoop Mina 27.11.26
Koch-Hirschler Flora 13.6.83
Koekoek Marcus 3.8.81
Kokemoot Berend 20.7.59
Kokemoot-Aalsvel Esther 28.7.64
Coffem van Aaron 28.2.16
Komkommerman Hijman 23.11.88
Kool Eva 10.7.68
Kool-de Klijn Reinqe 30.9.99
Kool Annie 8.6.42
Kool Heintje 29.9.40
Kool-Rokkestikker Rosa 29.8.15
Kool Simon 20.1.05
Koppel Saartje 20.9.84
Koren-van Adelsbergen Grietje 3-5.91
Koren Salomon 27.10.62
Koster Alexander 17.12.78
Koster-Vleeshouwer Regina 8.5.83
Koster-Eliazer Kaatje 31.10.80
Krant Philippus 28.12.82
Krant-Cohen Naatje 14.1.86
Krant Salomon 16.11.24
Kratzenstein-Straus Dina 14.4.67
Kromme de Salomon 19.5.26
Kusherow-Vaz Nunes Eva 26.9.63
Kwetsie Dientje 28.6.82
Leer van Nachman 27.11.72
Lagrant Sara 3.8.26
Lakmaker Anna 20.7.30
Lakmaker-Blitz Eva 12.6.95
Lakmaker-Nikkelsberg Rosette 16.6.97
Lange de Salomon 9.11.81
Lafsman-Hess Frouwkje 3.12.69
Lafsman Israel 13.3.70
Leer van Mauritz 31.12.63
Leer van-Gottschalk Marianne 26.11.74
Leervan Theodora 20.7.73
Leeuw de-Rosenberg Carolina 30.3.83
Leeuw de Heijman 18.9.93
Leeuw de-Zwaab Klara 2.9.92
Leeuw de Manus 10.6.&5
Leeuw de Michel 24.6.82
Leeuwe de Flora 23.3.98
Leeuwen van Abrabam 2.6.78
Leeuwen van-Snoek Reintje 8.1.68
Leeuwen van-Zuurhar Roosje 15.11.02
Leijdesdorf Leonard 16.12.80
Leijdesdorf-Vos Rosalie 18.3.92
Les Emanuel 25.9.01
Les-vanLos Mietje 21.9.99
Les Sonja 16.5.34
Leeuw- van der Molen Elisabeth
Leeuw John 30.5.33
Levie de-van Raalte Hendrica 16.7.69
Levi-Nabarro Leonore 24.1.74
Levi Mahram 13.3.77
Leeuw-Kan Leentje 25.4.74
Levie Maurits 14.2.26
Levie de Sander 31.5.71
Levie-Maas Sara 21.4.76
Levit Lea 15.7.84
Levita de-van Kollem Aaltje 7.5.77
Levitikus Louis 16.7.18
Levitikus-Manzbach Beate 4.2.16
Levijt Hertog 6.2.80
Levijt-Tertes Naatje 12.9.84
Lieme de Meijer 10.3.74
Liem de-Italie Anna 4.9.71
Lievendag Herman 26.12.68
Lievendag-Sanders Helene 24.2.73
Limburg-de Vries Heintje 25.1.62
Linnewiel Sally 10.11.95
Lion Willem 21.4.80
Lion-Hartopon Rebecca 7.5.82
Lipschutz Selma 22.6.92
Lissauer-Frankfort Marianne 11.5.68
Lobo-Wolff Maria 28.5.67
Lobo Mordechai 1.5.69
Loepo-Dias Jacob 4.2.89
Lopes Dias-Aandagt Elisabeth 30.5.96
Lopes Dias Catharina 5.11.28
Loewenstein-Krause Klara 14.9.03
Loewenstein Harry 29.4.40
Loggem van-Rootveld Sara 25.11.70
Loon van Andres 20.8.80
Looper-Stibbe Dina 16.7.82
Lopes Dias Michel 6.7.93
Lopes Dias-Frankfort Flora 3.5.39
Lunskij Baruch 15.7.77
Lunskij-Bagon Kaja 21.9.96
Luza Salomon 13.9.68
Luza-van de Wijk Sophia 4.2.64
Maas Mietje 13.12.94
Magtige de-Cohen Duifje 25.10.58
Magtige de Mozes 25.1.62
Malinger Kyfka 11.8.09
Marcus Sophia 6.11.88
Mathijse Abrabam 29.5.69
Mathijse Anna 25.7.16
Matteman David 7.8.21
Matteman-Swaab Rachel 2.2.23
Meents Heijman 8.1.20
Meets-van de Kaar Hendrika 1.4.21
Meyer-Levi Henriette 16.12.69
Meyer Maurits 20.11.92
Meyer-Smalhout Dina 11.6.93
Meijer Mortz 8.8.89
Meyers Marianne 5.2.74
Meijers Philipp 20.3.05
Maikels-Komkommer Anna 9.7.94
Meijado-Broekema Marianne 25.1.73
Meijado Jacob 28.2.76
Menko Salli 26.10.74
Menko-Davidson Truitje 8.6.72
Merritz Elisabeth 6.8.97
Messel van-Elion Kaatjen 20.7.98
Messel van Salomon 15.6.87
Minko-Schweiger Lea 1.3.67
Modeijefsky Harriet 27.9.24
Mogendorff Cecilia 5.11.26
Mogendorff Henriette 23.11.25
Mogendorff-Hillesum Naatje 5.6.89
Mogendorff Rosa 1.12.32
Mok Alexander 8.1.20
Mok-Cohen Sientje 5.11.98
Mok Eva 2.12.28
Mok Philinp 21.11.30
Mol Lion 11.12.62
Mol-van de Hoek Rachel 27.5.64
Mol-de Wied Roosje 25.3.83
Molen van der David 14.11.80
Molen van der-Moppus van Sophia 17.11.80
Monikendam Cosman 1.5.81
Monikendam-Grost Rachel 9.2.83
Montesinos Anna 20.12.97
Montesinos Elisabeth 13.11.95
Montesinos Salomon 6.5.24
Mooy Roza 21.5.79
Morpurgo Mordechai 9.12.93
Morpurgo-Felmans Judith 52-70
Moscou Emanuel 22.Z91
Moskou-Beugeltas Elsje 25.1.89
Moses Lilli 27.2.94
Mouwes Samuel 27.6.18
Mullum Roosje 21.10.05
Mozes Maurits 17.1.15
Moses-van den Berg Maria 24.6.19
Moses Elsa 4.12.40
Muller-Berg Dina 1.8.65
Muller-Becker Klara 29.3.90
Muller-Monk Paula 23.8.68
Nathan-Witjas Esther 17.2.87
Nathans Marcus 31.6.96
Nathans-Schloss Berna 2.8.09
Nathans Nico 30.4.38
Nathans-Goudeket Naatje 21.1.76
Natkiel-Natkiel Elisabeth 6.3.92
Natkiel Harry 27.8.30
Neeter-Agsteribbe Josefina 23.10.97
Nijkerk Abraham 27.8.98
Nijkerk-Jons Betsy 1.7.01
Nijkerk Maria 10.1.27
Nimet-Bienstock Rosa 22.7.08
Nemet Helmuth 10.4.35
Neeter-Kesing Henriette 11.8.69
Neubarger-Fredrikstadt Jetje 30.3.04
Neubarger Alex 31.IU9
Neumann Gunther 15.3.00
Neumann-van Pels Klara 31.8.00
Neumann-Brauer Hedwig 13.11.72
Nieuwendijk Abraham 1.5.61
Niehom-Cohen Dina 26.3.63
Nord-Modeijefsky Jeannette 21.11.98
Nord Rachel 13.12.23
Norden Betsy 27.12.26
Nordhauser Nathan 12.8.80
Obendorfer-Springer Hedwig 11.12.78
Overdorfer Simon 9.3.72
Okker-Tunninge Louise 15.9.88
Okker Samuel 1.3.89
Oosten van Max 26.4.12
Oosten van-Englander Lea 14.2.19
Ossedriver Jansje 2.11.91
Ossedrijver-Roos Racbel 8.3.09
Ossedriver Betje 30.7.32
Ossedriver Levij 6.3.35
Laauw de Louis 9.3.68
Pachter Rebecca 19.7.78
Paradies Alexander 15.11.75
Paradies-Loeb Johanna 30.5.85
Park-Korper Heintje 28.10.73
Park Meyer 16.1.96
Park-Park Roosje 26.1.02
Park Henriette 4.4.25
Pekel-Mendels Hendrina 29.9.76
Pekel Simon 6.5.76
Pijpeman Jacob 9.1.15
Pijpeman-Roodveld Hetje 4.3.16
Pijpeman Wolf 25.11.37
Pijpeman Roosje 30.8.26
Pijpeman-Bon Sara 22.2.04
Pijpeman Samuel 19.7.33
Pijpeman Mietje 22.10.35
Pekel Levie 1.2.83
Pekel-Polak Marie 7.3.82
Pels Alexander 29.6.89
Pels- der Sluis Alida 18.3.93
Pels Isidor 18.9.27
Pels Florence 30.9.27
Pels-Further Mina 1.8.66
Penha de la- van Maarsen Elisabeth 14.5.77
Peper Eva 17.12.27
Peper Hinach 27.2.00
Peper Jacob 14.8.90
Peper-Mos Henriette 2.2.98
Peper Louis 30.1.36
Peper-Brommet Rosette 19.7.97
Peper Femina 21.11.31
Philip Julia 18.11.79
Philips Abraham 27.8.57
Philips Isaac 8.8.77
Philips Jeannette 20.10.05
Philips Philip 16.1.63
Pierette-Appel Elisabeth 15.3.02
Pierette Herman 27.6.30
Piller-Levie Betje 27.9.73
Piller Isaac 3.3.76
Pinto Baruch 13.9.63
Pinto Isaac 21.2.77
Pinto Joost 29.1.03
Pinto-Juchenheim Rosalie 22.1.64
Plant Jacob 25.9.71
Polak Abraham 1.11.81
Polak Betje 13.9.76
Polak Abraham 8.10.91
Polak-Velleman Bloeme 17.4.60
Polak David 6.6.84
Polak-Brilleslijper Duifje 9.4.93
Polak-Caransa Femina 21.9.92
Polak Jacques 27.8.21
Polak Jetje 26.1.89
Polak Leonard 2.3.65
Polak Nathan 25.8.65
Polak Raphael 23.11.65
Polak-Lewijt Judic 25.6.73
Polak Samuel 19.9.64
Polak-Bnlleshjper Schoonqe 19.12.68
Polak-Blinderman Vrouwtje 5.8.92
Polen van Israel 30.6.73
Poons Betje 12.8.75
Poons Louis 15.9.94
Poppegaai-van Geldere Magdalena 13.5.89
Posen-Elias Esther 1.1.74
Praag van Sigaar Esther 28.7.03
Praag van Sigaar Rachel 30.10.32
Praag van Sigaar Philip 4.8.26
Praag van Rosette 26.2.83
Premseler-Biet Reintje 13.10.81
Prins Samuel 28.11.78
Prins-Vleeschbouwer Heintje 30.4.80
Pronk-Davidson Elisabeth 13.5.80
Pront-de Hond Aaltje 26.3.94
Pront Jacob 9.5.91
Raalte van Henri 28.2.77
Raalte van-Zilverberg Rebecca 22.7.78
Raap Anny 21.8.29
Raap Roosje 4.9.36
Raap David 13.2.27
Raap van Eliazar 3.8.82
Raap-Preger Sophia 6.5.98
Rabbie Samuel 31.10.03
Rechnitzer Marie 29.7.02
Reens Elisabeth 18.4.25
Reens-Barber Heriette 29.6.01
Reens-Mok Klaartje 18.1.63
Reicher Lodewijk 16.4.57
Rijksman Emanuel 28.5.82
Rijksman -Waterrnan Theresia 13.11.86
Reiter Moritz 17.7.69
Reiter-Keh Frieda 21.8.78
Rhoer van der-Heinemann Jetje 3.11.69
Riene-Bons Elisabeth 21.5.02
Rindel-van Straten Carolina 4.7.01
Ritmeester David 29.11.74
Ritmeester-Roodveldt Rebecca 31.8.72
Roeper Eduard 13.4.68
Roper-David Engelina 27.9.67
Rood de-Goedel Betje 14.12.13
Roodenburg-Nabarro Anna 20.10.99
Roodenburg Hans 22.12.33
Roodveldt-Kokernoot Julius 5.10.82
Roodveldt-Wittenburg Leentje 22.10.60
Roos-Ortje Vogeltje 30.9.56
Rozendaal-Cohen Frederika 7.2.71
Rozendaal Salomon 7.2.57
Rosa de Andries 4.4.69
Rosa de-Dreese Delphine 7.9.75
Rozeman Jacob 26.2.78
Rozeman-Norden Rosa 9.7.87
Rosenberg Louis 4.6.83
Rosenberg-Mann Ricka 10.12.72
Rosenfeld Alfred 1.9.81
Rosenfeld S. 5.9.84
Rosenthal-Heinemam Allica 22.3.82
Rosenthal Hugo 19.8.82
Rosenthal-Loewenthal Sophie 19.6.62
Rosman Slate 21.7.70
Rothe-Meyer Elsa 22.12.73
Roseband Mietje 7.2.90
Ruzin Rafael 31.10.90
Sachs Julius 14.4.99
Sachs-Dikker Bertha 22-I0.07
Sachs Johanna 28.10.32
Sack Kresol 1.1.94
Salomon Isaac 7.3.71
Salomon-Cohen Emma 1.2.78
Samson-Frankenhuis Mina 20.6.05
Samson Rebecca 29.4.28
Samson Samuel 20.7.29
Samson Wolf 6.7.26
Samter-Asch Elisabeth 20.11.77
Samuels Anna 31.I2.75
Sanders-Sanders Carolina 2.9.85
Sanders Joseph 1.5.61
Sanders Josephina 11.12.87
Sanders Kurt 20.7.13
Sanders Mijers 28.2.76
Sanders Samuel 31.3.98
Sanders-Fransman Anna 9.6.98
Sarphatie-Lelie Naatje 3.5.74
Sarphatic Rafael 22.9.60
Seemer-Drukker Sophie 30.9.86
Seewald Albert 31.10.74
Seewald-Steigerwald Clara 20.7.74
Seelig Elisabeth 21.10.77
Seelig Jeannette 27.7.76
Seelig Johanna 21.5.82
Silberklang Mozes 10.11.58
Simons Bernard 26.3.85
Simon-Sanders Florette 3.5.88
Sjouerman Elisabeth 26.3.80
Sjouerman Mietje 9.1.73
Sloggem David 1.11.12
Sloggem-Reems Frederika 8.11.14
Sloggem Philip 15.8.42
Sluijs van der-Cohen Betje 12.9.95
Sluijs van der Greta 9.12.36
Sluijs van der Israel 25.8.85
Sluijs van der Joseph 2.8.82
Sluijs van der-Witzenhuisen Mietje 21.12.82
Sluijs van der-van de Sluijs Leentje 27.9.00
Sluijs van de Simon 1.9.28
Sluijs van de Lien 14.7.02
Sluijser-Noach Carolina 24.11.83
Smalhout-Krammer Engeltje 26.8.98
Soesman Berhta 23.10.78
Soesman Eugen 23.7.05
Soesman-Goldstein Lieselotte 12.10.11
Soesman Eduard 21.7.39
Soesman Isaac 23.12.86
Soesman-Izaaks Esther 26.5.91
Spanjer Bernard 4.10.94
Spanjer-Kosman Anna 9.3.05
Spanjer Hartog 21.1.05
Spanjar-van Sister Dina 9.6.05
Spanjar Hanna 8.6.31
Spanjar Isaac 1.11.32
Speyer Levie 15.8.67
Spier-Kool Catharina 16.10.94
Spier-Rosenfeld Marie 27.5.68
Spier Mozes 10.9.64
Springer-de Leeuw Fytje 6.8.83
Springer Julius 6.6.80
Springer Salomon 29.5.81
Suiskind Afred 20.10.07
Suiskind-Beffie Francina 26.8.10
Suiskind Henry 20.1.35
Soesan-de Vries Judith 11.6.76
Soesan Marcus 12.8.76
Swaab Barend 27.9.06
Swaab-Swaab Sara 20.3.06
Swaab Jane 27.6.35
Swaab Samuel 24.12.34
Swaab Vrouwtje 29.3.31
Swaab Hartog 16.3.28
Swaab-Velleman Leentje 21.1.73
Swaab Nathan 21.12.89
Swaab Catharina 15.8.21
Swaabberg-Frank Hendrika 23.5.81
Swartberg Josef 1.12.81
Swarte de-Hildesheim Dina 1.8.74
Swartenberg Mietje 11.4.85
Schaap Kaatje 9.9.65
Schaap-Gobets Sophie 1.5.00
Schaap Eva 10.3.32
Scheffer-Zante Eva 8.9.99
Scheffer Hartog 14.8.33
Scheffer Saul 6.1.31
Scheiberg Fritz 29.10.99
Scheiberg-Koopman Grete 6.7.02
Scheijer-Ginsberg Nannie 26.3.78
Schellevis Klara 9.10.20
Schellevis Eva 23.11.23
Schoenberg Marianne 25.8.69
Schoenhoed-Bamberger Louise 22.11.91
Schoenhoed Kitty 22.9.84
Schoenthal Alfred 12.11.00
Schoenthal-Mozes Henny 18.2.06
Schoenthal Rudolf 30.9.39
Schoenthal Nathan 29.8.61
Schoenthal-Altgenug Rosa 10.6.73
Schottlander Julius 4.9.86
Schuerman Else 23.11.98
Schwarz-Wedel Bertha 26.11.56
Schwarz-Rosenbaum Mathilde 9.3.69
Schweiger Jacob 10.3.72
Staal Reina 28.1.20
Staal Sara 16.2.25
Stad-Zons Elematta 6.9.09
Stam van der Andries 28.3.94
Stain van der-Dormits Clara 8.9.97
Stam van der Elias 6.7.23
Stam van der Hetty 14.4.19
Steinbracher Isidor 11.2.16
Steinbrecher-Davidson Jansje 9.1.19
Steinbracher Herbert 13.4.41
Stern Fritz 20.9.99
Stern-Wolf Paula 26.7.01
Stern Leopold 18.6.28
Schoenrock-Mozes Duifje 22.9.84
Stein Alfred 12.5.16
Ster van der Josef 5.8.95
Ster van der-Stein Maria 14.1.97
Ster van der Salomon 11.9.29
Ster van der Theresia 1.11.27
Stern-Heni Sareline 19.1.59
Stigeter-Brunner Elise 1.5.83
Straten van Hester 12.7.84
Straus Louis 1.3.48
Strauss Rene 17.9.97
Stuiver Sophia 27.2.86
Sturhoofd-Loonstein Esther 16.1.69
Sturhoofd Jacobus 13.2.66
Tas Keetje 11.8.94
Teitelbaum Israel 27.1.25
Tertas Johanna 17.3.92
Theeboom David 24.6.24
Theeboom Simon 30.7.13
Theeboom-Schoonhoed Aaltje 25.12.15
Themans-van Spiegel Rosette 18.2.55
Thierens-van Moppes Eva 7.4.59
Thijn van Benzion 22.9.77
Tbijn van-Wolff Hendrina 7.12.67
Tokkie Marcus 4.9.85
Tokkie-Poppegaai Wilhelmina 22.6.82
Treitel-Ketellapper Debora 1.1.91
Treitel Isaak 1.9.87
Troostwijk-Polak Betje 24.11.87
Truder-Rijksman Rosa 4.3.84
Unger Jacob 14.12.71
Unger-Schumir Erna 14.4.84
Vaz Dias-Leon Sara 3.6.78
Veen van der Goldine 2.1.08
Veffer Roosje 30.3.89
Velde van der-Snoek Esther 10.10.06
Velde van der Jacques 25.1.34
Velde van der Philip 26.7.88
Velleman-Godlieb Elisabeth 17.2.54
Velleman-Neuburger Branca 16.2.64
Vellmans Jacob 16.9.19
Venetianer-Mof Roosje 7.12.67
Verdoner Meijer 4.4.14
Verdoner Michel 6.2.90
Verdoner-Ritmeester Rebecca 4.7.85
Vetterman Esther 8.7.18
Vieijera Meijer 11.10.91
Vigevino Hans 29.8.25
Vigevino Josef 6.1.94
Vigevino-Levy Sophia 14.8.97
Vigevino Eduard 5.3.71
Vigivano Johanna 20.6.28
Vilbach Rachel 15.11.84
Vliet van Johanna 18.12.79
Vos-Polak Jeannette 13.1.72
Vos Salomon 5.12.98
Vos-de Jong Klara
Vredenburg Alfred 12.2.97
Vreeland Luoise 13.3.37
Vreeland Nico 14.9.40
Vreeland Lucas 9.3.11
Vreeland-Monnikendam Margaretha 26.3.10
Vreeland Elisabeth 9.9.31
Vreeland Michel 7.1.42
Vreeland Sonja 16.1.33
Vrengel-de Groot Bertha 15.10.74
Vernegel Meijer 21.7.34
Vries de- Swalui Esther 19.10.63
Vries de -Simons Lea 2.6.76
Vries de Moses 19.11.57
Vries de Salomon 83.97
Vries de-Hes Rachel 10.10.98
Vries de Maurits 24.1.07
Vries de-van Straaten Rosetta 28.8.85
Vries de-Nieuwkerk Sellie 17.11.14
Vries de Mryin 3.12.37
Vries de Caroline 4.9.39
Wachsman Alter 28.8.94
Wachsman-Schaufel Temera 24.9.99
Wachsman Benno 23.8.33
Wachsman Ilan 16.9.35
Wahrhaftig Abraham 4.6.31
Wahrhaftig Chaim 27.7.33
Wahrhaftig Esther 8.9.36
Wahrhaftig-Stemmer Rosa 13.8.10
Wallach Mariame 14.11.96
Wallach Isaac 12.7.19
Wallach-Zwiefach Beila 1.3.16
Wallach Levie 5.10.40
Wallager Benjamin 14.1.74
Wallager-Wolff Jacoba 26.7.76
Walvis Duifje 13.10.21
Walvis Sara 7.3.83
Walvis Hartog 9.2.60
Waterman-Hoepelman Grietje 14.7.01
Wahrhaftig Zacharias 21.2.05
Waterman Nathan 7.3.13
Waterman-Malkin Sara 18.12.06
Waterman Ephraim 12.3.36
Waterman Julius 25.11.38
Weenen van Juliette 19.6.20
Weezel van Mozes 12.11.77
Weezel van-de Boers Jette 21.5.80
Wijnberg-van Dam Froukje 23.7.59
Weinberg-Groenberg Mietje 15.2.69
Wijnberg-Strauss Ida 9.11.77
Wijnberg-Israels Cornelia 11.10.68
Wijnschenk Jacob 20.8.85
Wijnschenk-Gans Elisabeth 10.11.94
Wijnschenk- Barmhartigheid Rebecca 6.5.14
Wijnschenk Elisabeth 5.1.36
Wertheim Levie 29.1.14
Wertheim-Wurms Sibora 14.5.08
Wertheim Benedictus 4.12.29
Wezel van-Legerman Judith 3.12.73
Wied de Herman 23.1.78
Wied de-Mok Aleida 15.10.76
Wilde de-Tas Branca 23.7.68
Winnik-Wurms Esther 5.3.00
Winnik Joseph 20.6.32
Winnik Lion 18.3.30
Witstyn-de Leeuw Froukje 2.6.61
Witteboon Gerrit 20.2.12
Wolf Betty 20.11.33
Wolf-de Jong Jetje 11.7.65
Wolf Mozes 29.3.76
Wolf-Engelander Rebecca 13.9.09
Wolf-van Wezel Egmont 5.9.74
Wolff-de Jong Esther 27.4.67
Wolf de Beer-Harpf Wilhelmina 19.1.77
Workam-Workum Elisabeth 16.1.69
Woude van der Markus 24.5.72
Woude van der-Batavier Margaretha 12.8.73
Wurm Levie 13.4.73
Wunns-Breemer Saartje 28.11.76
Zak Jacob 23.5.78
Zak-Leeuwarden Sara 5.7.79
Zanten van-Levij Johanna 9.6.66
Zegerius Aron 6.9.89
Zegerius-Meijer Mathilde 8.3.93
Zilberstein Aron 28.12.35
Zilberstein-Feniger Jochmet 1.8.97
Zilberstein Simon 8.8.01
Zilberberg Alexander 20.12.13
Zilverberg-van Dam Aleida 27.1.78
Zilverberg-Mozes Hendrika 18.1.90
Zilverberg Jacob 12.9.71
Zilverberg Maurits 22.2.15
Zilverberg Mozes 24.9.07
Zilverberg-Barend Rebecca 26.3.07
Zilverberg Louis 25.7.42
Zilverberg Lia 20.5.40
Zilverberg Jetje 14.5.38
Zondervan Joseph 20.10.56
Zwaaf-Kornalijnslijper Eva 19.2.89
Zwaaf Christina 172-32
Zwaaf-Vischjager Rachel 22.7.97
Zwaaf-Roodveldt Sientje 8.3.60
Zwanenberg van Karel 9.4.84
Zwanenberg van-Frank Rosalie 5.10.81
Zwanenberg van Terese 12.8.71
Zwarte de Simon 16.2.77
Zwarte de-Polak Mietje 7.11.76
Zwartz Eliazer 22.12.80
Zwartz-Rosenthal Kaethe 26.5.87


Agsteribbe Abraham 26.11.82
Ancona-van Bergen Sara 23.6.12
Appelboom Gerrit 5.5.93
Beek Willem 16.1.08
Belifante Gerrit 3.5.20
Berklou Nathan 31.5.07
Barnstein Meyer 29.12.05
Bamstein-de Groot Elisabeth 25.10.14
Bloch Salomon 6.3.98
Boasson Bernhard 3.8.10
Boeki Jacob 23.3.94
Boeki-Berklouw Leentje 24.2-94
Boeki Leentje 4.9.17
Bramson Jacob 21.11.15
Bramson Silvan 29.9.17
Brandel Saartje 5.1.02
Braun Herbert 15.11.22
Broekema Barend 16.7.19
Broekema-Koekoek Gretha 31.3.20
Broekman Isaac 1.3.81
Cats-van Dealen Cornelia 6.8.91
Cats Leon 3.3.92
Cauveren Moses 22.4.00
Dam van Gonda 8.11.83
Dam van-Israel Esther 3.5.24
Dasberg Eliazer 21.4.02
Davidson Jacques 1.6.96
Elsas Michael 29.9.24
Elsas Salomon 21.11.99
Embden van Jacob 22.1.21
Engel van Isidor 21.4.71
Erwteman-Kurz Erna 4.11.06
Fonteijn Hartog 27.1.83
Fresco Dora 12.9.87
Friedmann Julius 14.7.00
Gelder van Willem 10.1.72
Gelder van Michel Z7.4.00
Gelder van-Menko Thelsa 24.12.08
Gelder van Sarla 2.2.36
Getrau Leon 14.11.93
Goldschmidt Elisa 24.1.71
Goudeket Simon 9.4.09
Groot de Alida 26.12.17
Groot de David 16.4.88
Groot de-Polak Heintje 6.7.93
Groot de Mannus 19.10.20
Hamburger Fritz 26.12.19
Herschel-Davids Bertha 1.9.75
Hess Georg 20.10.68
Hiller Hans 25.2-03
Italiaander Isidor 14.12.16
Jong de Isaak 3.10.21
Half Willem 15.9.19
Kar van der-Polk Catharina 2.6.04
Kar van der Gretha 4.10.26
Kar van der Isaak 14.3.05
Katan Andries 25.10.22
Katz-Lublin Erna 19.3.80
Katz Frans 26.1.11
Kats de Vries Emma 11.2.18
Kiek David 14.10.99
Koopman-Schellevis Grietje 7.6.16
Kromme de Mozes 23.6.98
Lakmaker Isaak 11.7.98
Lakmaker Salomon 26.3.85
Leeuw de Salomon 30.10.13
Leeuw de-Dreyfuss Lilli 28.3.20
Leeuwen van Heijman 12.2.Or7
Leviet Abraham 29.9.20
Liefman Isaak 9.5.90
Loewenberg Emanuel 29.1.69
Loewenstein-Eichenwald Martha 29.1.98
Loewenstein Siegfried 16.3.06
Macbtige de Israel 16.8.96
Markas de David 19.2.20
Melhado Josef 22.9.93
Mendels Emanuel 17.12.01
Mendels-de Leeuw Johanna 3.1.11
Mesritz Martinus 10.3.21
Mogendorff Isaac 19.1.97
Moscoviter-Fresco Evelina 27.9.85
Musaph Max 12.1.84
Niekerk Aronda 7.7.07
Nieweg Magnus 16.1.18
Nieweg Herman 25.2.29
Nord Moses 17.6.96
Oostra Joseph 8.12.01
Oostra-Joosten Bertha 29.12.07
Ossendriver Abraham 8.5.08
Pach-Senos Elisabeth 26.5.01
Plas Isaak 1.5.92
Polak Mozes 8.10.77
Polak-Wimpfheimer Bernardina 31.8.84
Polak-Seen Roosien 28.9.12
Pool Simon 11.4.81
Pool-Heigman Celina 27.4.82
Popper Oscar 7.10.87
Popper-Braun Carola 22.9.95
Praag Sigaar van Salomon 10.6.99
Prins Manus 17.11.90
Raay de Emanuel 23.11.20
Reens Mozes 6.8.95
Wagensburg Philippus 10.12.06
Rodrigues- Pareira David 21.4.05
Roode de-Brandel Kaatje 28.6.03
Roode de Abraham 29.4.30
Roodenburg Heijman 16.12.04
Salomon Jacob 7.8.06
Saphier Josef 7.7.08
Slier David 31.12.19
Smalhout Salomon 27.8.97
Swart Samson 1.1.10
Smit Raphtali 18.9.14
Schoolmeester Rebecca 24.10.95
Stein Josef 14.9.14
Stranders Leo 4.9.25
Stranders Machiel 9.7.12
Stranders Philip 27.3.14
Straten v Andries 29.7.76
Straten van-van de Vegt Naatje 1.1.83
Vegt Salomon 24.4.01
Vegt-Kalker Henriette 16.5.02
Visser Esther 12.5.02
Vredenburg Klara 18.12.68
Vredenburg Hartog 8.12.72
Vries de Martijn 18.9.13
Wallaga Mulder-Canter Alida 4.11.77
Waterman Sara 14.3.83
Wijzenbeek Salomon. 2.11.12
Wieringen van-Lusato Wilhelmina 21.5.99
Winnik Levie 7.3.01
Wolf-Cousin Johanna 30.12.00
Wolf de Levic 8.2.20
Wolf Louis 20.7.86
Zilverberg Arie 27.8.81
Zilverberg Arend 5.5.29
Zwarenstein Lion 30.7.92
Zwarenstein-de Leeuw Suze 1.2.99


Abbe van Isaac 18.7.86
Abbe van Marianne 26.7.88
Bak Bernhard 18.11.22
Baum Leo 29.3.89
Baum-Meijer Betty 31.3.00
Baum Margot 7.10.Z7
Bendien-Monnikendam Sientje 12.6.73
Breslauer Bruno 1.12.68
Cohen Benjamin 12.8.26
Cohen-de Beer Jacoba 11.12.95
Embden van-Groen Sara 17.12.67
Friedmann Louis 24.3.86
Friedmann-Kahn Elze 15.6.89
Godefroi Klaris 13.1.66
Godefroi Elisabeth 24.6.64
Graaf de-Meijers Marianne 14.9.67
Gruenfeld Gerson 5.9.73
Gruenfeld-Isaak Theresia 23.11.73
Haalgman Betje 25.7.68
Halman-Spreekmeester Sara 16.11.70
Haringman Flora 14.9.82
Hond de Noach 26.11.74
Jong de Hester 28.5.81
Kleerckoper-Isaak Eva 30.7.73
Leeuw de(gesch.Mulie) Emma 13.8.91
Leisen-Springer Matbilde 7.5.94
Levit Jack 6.1.18
Levit-Davidson Rosa 15.6.13
Lever Bruno 21.6.06
Lever-Seligman Ema 21.SA
L.ewinsohn-Cohn Betty 10.3.82
Lissauer Andries 10.6.71
Lissauer-Cohen Esther 18.1.77
Lubinski Chiel 28.7.98
Lubinski-Simons Selma 28.8.96
Lubinski Erna 21.5.30
Marcus Carolina 10.5.97
Mossel Emanuel 15.3.69
Mossel-Mulder Mirjam 26.1.72
Noort Isaac 12.7.97
Oostra Marcus 26.11.75
Oostra-Kunstenaart Zudie 5.4.79
Pieters-de Vries Naatje 3.12.77
Polak-van Amerongen Lea 24.7.93
Praag van Nathaniel 11.3.70
Praag van-Vleeschhouwer Kaatje 24.5.71
Rooijen van-Prins Rosalina 8.7.72
Rothschild gesch. Andersch Mathilde 14.6.91
Santen Barend 26.11.81
Simons Betsie 11.11.15
Smit Leopold 14.5.00
Smit-de Vries Engeline 27.11.08
Spijer Jacob 10.6.78
Spijer-Groenteman Saartje 8.1.80
Schrijver Joseph 30.5.11
Schrijver-Okker Carla 14.6.14
Sterke de Sophia 7.10.62
Theeboom-Koekoek Sara 21.12.96
Theeboom Isaak 6.10.Z7
Zadoks Abraham 2.8.68
Zadoks-Emanuel Cato 7.6.74
Lubinski Gusta 5.5.34
Gelderen van Hester 1.11.21
Joel Isaak 7.3.32
Kromme de-Mouwes Eva 7.9.99
Plas-Schelvis Margaretha 23.4.03
Prins Elisabeth 1.7.67
Schoenberg Dina 7.10.73
Wahrhaftig Gusta 31.10.40
Wolfromm-Bluemlein Sali 31.5.74


Sterzitz Bertha 1.2.06
Wieringen van Eva 29.7.24





The Trial of a Traitor

Below is the transcript of a Dutch court case, The defendant is only referred to as Mrs C. That is how the Dutch legal system still works nowadays, the name of a defendant is only indicated by the first letter of the surname.

The transcript dates 7 September 1947. Mrs C. is accused of treason and collaboration.

I don’t know what sentence she got but I presume she receive the death penalty.

Indictment, Accusation and Conviction of Mrs C. from Blasiusstraat in Amsterdam, who was involved with others in betraying Jewish families, including the family of Michel Gompers and Bertha Vogel.

“The accused Mrs C. was accused that, being Dutch, during the hostile occupation of the Empire in Europe:

A: Has generally shown National Socialist affiliation by joining the Dutch People’s Service in or around 1944; NSB window posters in the windows of her home, as well as attending NSB meetings and reading the magazines Volk en Vaderland and De Daad.

B: In or about 1943 M. Gompers and his wife and B. Vogel, a Jewish family, exposed them to detention or restriction of freedom by or on behalf of the enemy, by repeatedly providing the German police with information and instructions regarding both persons, at least as a result of which they were both arrested on or about 9 August 1943 by officers of the SD, as a result of which they provided aid and support to the enemy; on the basis of which actions it must be deemed to have deliberately acted contrary to the interests of the Dutch people.

The testimony of M. Gompers, as recorded in the official report dated March 4, 1946, by two police officers of the Municipality of Amsterdam, read: During the major Jewish roundup in June 1943, the Germans also came to my house in the Blasiusstraat in Amsterdam. My wife and I were not apprehended at the time, because my wife had proof from Dr Peeters, who was able to submit, stating that she was a carrier of typhus bacilli. I then saw and heard from my home that Mrs C. said to one of the German officers: “that woman is not ill, she always walks outside”, to which the German said: “that has nothing to do with you, what I do is good.” I then heard Mrs C. say to the bystanders: “We are going to Euterpestraa tomorrow”. The next day two men indeed came, who said they were from the SD. They told us, after we read the statement of Dr Peeters, but not taken with them. On the evening of August 9, 1943, I was in my house together with my wife, despite the statement of Dr Peeters arrested by two SD men and then transferred to Euterpestraat. Shortly afterwards my wife and I were transferred via the Hollandse Schouwburg to the Jewish Hospital. My wife, as I later learned, committed suicide during her transport to Westerbork by taking poison. On September 19, 1943, I received word of her death; I was able to escape from the hospital myself.

Mrs C. herself stated the following at the hearing:

In 1943, during a raid on Jews in the street where I lived, I said to the German police: “The good Jews take you away and the bitches leave you alone”, pointing in the direction of the house of the M. Gompers. I was at odds with the Gompers family because my children, who had been to the East Mark, were often teased in the neighbourhood. Furthermore, I could not bear the fact that many Jews with whom I lived on good terms were arrested and taken away, while the Gompers family constantly managed to evade arrest. I then drew the attention of the German police to the Gompers family during the aforementioned raid. The Gompers family was not arrested during that raid. Gompers and his wife B. Vogel were taken away by the Germans sometime later. The testimonies are unfavourable to me because I was disliked in the neighbourhood; since my children were frequently teased, I often threatened the German police, but without carrying out my threat….

Judgment, Conviction and Sentence rendered on September 9, 1947, in which the accused is declared guilty of the aforementioned which is declared proven and imposes the following measures on the accused:

1): internment whereby it is suggested that the duration thereof be limited to four years and that the time spent by the accused in pre-internment from 8 June 1945 be deducted from this, so that internment should end on 8 June 1949.

2): Deprivation of the right to vote and eligibility in elections held pursuant to statutory regulations.

Determines, as necessary, that the administration of the accused’s property shall end within three months after the internment has ended.”




Etty Hillesum—Murdered Beauty

At first, I was reluctant to use the word beauty in the title because we now live in an era where some people might find that offensive, and they will scream about it. I pity them because they lose out on so much.

Etty Hillesum was a beauty in every sense of the word. It may have been too much for the Nazis because they murdered her. She was murdered on November 30, 1943, in Auschwitz according to data from the Red Cross.

Etty (or Esther) was the daughter of Levie Hillesum and Riva Bernstein. She was born on January 15, 1914, in Middelburg in the Dutch province of Zeeland. In 1932 she moved to Amsterdam to study law and Slavic languages. In Amsterdam, she met Julius Spier. He became her teacher and great love. During the war, she worked for the Jewish Council at Camp Westerbork and other places. She wrote several letters from Westerbork and kept a diary.

In March 1937 she took a room at 6 Gabriel Metsustraat in south Amsterdam in the house of an accountant Hendrik (Han) Wegerif, a widower aged 62 who hired her as a housekeeper. He also began an affair with her. She lived in this house until her final departure for Westerbork in 1942, and it was in her room there that much of her diary was written. The small community of people who shared the house with her were important to her. In addition to Han Wegerif, there was his 21-year-old son Hans, a German cook named Kathe, a student Bernard Meylink, and a nurse, Maria Tuinzing, who became one of Etty’s close friends.

The most important relationship of the diary is with the psychochirologist (hand reader) Julius Spier. Born in 1887 in Germany, he had come to Amsterdam in 1939. Spier had worked in Zurich with Jung, who had encouraged him to develop his skill in chirology, the practice of psychoanalysis through the reading of people’s palms. He was a gifted and charismatic figure and gathered around him a group of students, particularly women. Etty became part of this group and went into therapy with Spier, developing a close relationship with him and becoming his secretary.

Etty was an intensely alive and sexual young woman, yet she felt plagued by what she called her ‘confounded eroticism”. But what healthy woman in her 20s isn’t interested in sex?

In 1942 she was given a position in the cultural affairs department of the Jewish Council. She worked there for only two weeks, which she calls hell in her diary. In August 1942, she received a call for deportation to Westerbork. Etty left and continued her social activities in Westerbork. As a member of the Jewish Council, she had a special travel visa that allowed her to return to Amsterdam many times before being deported with her family on September 7, 1943.

Just as Anne Frank also wrote a diary, which was released after the war, titled, “An Interrupted Life,” I’ve chosen a few quotes from the diary. The words are profoundly sad but also beautiful and with a sense of hope.

“Ultimately, we have just one moral duty: to reclaim large areas of peace in ourselves, more and more peace, and to reflect it toward others. And the more peace there is in us, the more peace there will also be in our troubled world.”

“Each of us must turn inward and destroy in himself all that he thinks he ought to destroy in others”

“As life becomes harder and more threatening, it also becomes richer, because the fewer expectations we have, the more good things of life become unexpected gifts that we accept with gratitude.”

“Sometimes my day is crammed full of people and talk and yet I have the feeling of living in utter peace and quiet. And the tree outside my window, in the evenings, is a greater experience than all those people put together.”

“My immediate reaction on meeting a man is invariably to gauge his sexual possibilities. I recognize this as a bad habit that must be stamped out”

“Yes, we women, we foolish, idiotic, illogical women, we all seek Paradise and the Absolute. And yet my brain, my capable brain, tells me that there are no absolutes, that everything is relative, endlessly diverse, and in eternal motion, and it is precisely for that reason that life is so exciting and fascinating, but also so very, very painful. We [women] want to perpetuate ourselves in a man.”

“I don’t want to be anything special. I only want to try to be true to that in me which seeks to fulfil its promise.”

“I know and share the many sorrows a human being can experience, but I do not cling to them; they pass through me, like life itself, as a broad eternal stream…and life continues…”

“By ‘coming to terms with life’ I mean: the reality of death has become a definite part of my life; my life has, so to speak, been extended by death, by my looking death in the eye and accepting it, by accepting destruction as part of life and no longer wasting my energies on fear of death or the refusal to acknowledge its inevitability. It sounds paradoxical: by excluding death from our life we cannot live a full life, and by admitting death into our life we enlarge and enrich it.”







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Just Three Names of the 1.5 Million

Sometimes I feel like just giving up posting about the Holocaust, but I know I can’t.

It is not always the images that upset me, more often it is that lack of images that gets to me. There are no images because the victims were just too young and were born in captivity, so there were no facilities to have a baby portrait taken. Parents could not show off their beautiful angels to friends and families.

These are just three names, with three connections and one fate.

Leo Jack Mathijse: Born in Amsterdam on 26 November 1942. Murdered in Auschwitz on 27 August 1943. He reached the age of nine months.

Max Jack Stern: Born in The Hague on 26 November 1942. Murdered in Sobibor on 5 March 1943. He reached the age of three months.

Roosje Gobets: Born in Amsterdam on 26 November 1942. Murdered in Sobibor on 2 April 1943. She reached the age of four months.

The connection—all were born this day 80 years ago. They were born under occupation, and all were in Westerbork at some stage.

The one fate; they were all murdered before they were one year old.






Johannes van der Hoek—Born to be Murdered

This story has torn my heart open. I can’t tell you too much about Johannes van der Hoek all I can tell you is that he was born on November 6, 1942, in Westerbork. He must have been placed on a transport to Auschwitz, straight after his birth because, he was murdered there on November 9, 1942, with his mother and his 2-year-old sister, Johanna, just three days after he was born.

His father was murdered a few months later, April 30, 1943. also in Auschwitz.

The very sad irony is that on Johannes’s birthday, November 6, 1942, the Soviet POWs mutinied and escaped from Birkenau. Under cover of fog and falling darkness, they forced their way past the SS guard posts into a part of the Birkenau camp, still under construction, that was not fenced. However, the majority of them were shot or caught during the escape.

Why a 3 day old baby—why?





The Evil of False Hope

I believe that one of the most evil crimes committed by the Nazi regime was the crime of false hope. In Westerbork the illusion was created that all wasn’t that bad. Everything was arranged to give prisoners the impression that they would be sent to working camps in Eastern Europe. Life there would be heavy, hard, and monotonous, but it would be liveable. In any case, children and families would be together. That was the information provided at the time.

In the period of 1943-1944, Westerbork’s commander Gemmeker arranged a variety of recreational facilities to make life in the camp run as normally as possible. There were sports facilities, music and cabaret,which also served his own amusement. There was even a fully functional HospitalThe ‘decent’ treatment by the Nazis, the system of exemptions, the hospital, and the cabaret served only one purpose: the creation of illusions. After all, eventually, everyone had to be put on transport. The system only ended up providing false hope.

In January 1941, the German authorities required all Jews to register themselves as Jews. A total of 159,806 persons registered, including 19,561 persons born of mixed marriages. The total included some 25,000 Jewish refugees from the German Reich. A Jewish council was established in February 1941. Most of them were sent to Westerbork before they were deported to Auschwitz, Sobibor or other camps. less then 25% of the Dutch Jewry survived the Holocaust.